Informācija

Ellena Vilsone


Elēna Vilsone (1860-1914) bija amerikāņu pirmā lēdija (1913-14) un ASV 28. prezidenta Vudro Vilsona pirmā sieva. Lai gan Ellen ir daudz mazāk pazīstama nekā viņas vīra otrā sieva Edīte Galta Vilsone, Elenu, iespējams, vislabāk atceras ar centieniem uzlabot afroamerikāņu mājokļa apstākļus Vašingtonā.

Džordžijā dzimusī meita, skolotāja māte un presbiteriešu ministra tēvs, Elēna Luīze Aksone jau agrīnā vecumā demonstrēja iespaidīgu intelektu, mācot sev trigonometriju, vienlaikus izceļoties angļu literatūrā un franču valodā. Lai gan viņas ģimene nevarēja atļauties universitātes mācību līdzekļus, Elēna turpināja izglītību, mācoties aspirantūrā Romas sieviešu koledžā un ilgi strādājot bibliotēkā. Vēlāk viņa iemācījās vācu valodu, lai veiktu pētījumus par vienu no sava vīra grāmatām, un labprāt lasīja tādu gaismekļu darbus kā Platons, Homērs, Miltons un Kīts.

Vudro Vilsons pirmo reizi pievērsa acis Elenai, kad viņam bija 6 gadi un viņa bija bērns. Viņi atkal satikās 1883. gadā, kad viņš bija jauns jurists, kurš viesojās no Atlantas un apmeklēja dievkalpojumu, ko rīkoja Elenas tēvs. Vilsons spēja noorganizēt vizīti Aksona mājās, un dažus mēnešus vēlāk viņš izdomāti ieplānoja atvaļinājumu, kas viņu atveda uz Aševiļu, Ziemeļkarolīnā, vienlaikus ar topošo sievu. Lai gan Ellena jau sen bija apliecinājusi vienaldzību pret laulībām, viņa pieņēma viņa pārsteiguma priekšlikumu ceļojuma beigās. Viņi apprecējās Savannā, Džordžijā, 1885. gada jūnijā.

Ellena varēja būt mākslinieciski apdāvinātākā no visiem, kas dzīvojuši Baltajā namā. Līdz 18 gadu vecumam viņa nopelnīja naudu par saviem krītiņu portretiem, un gadu pirms Ņujorkas apmeklēja prestižo Mākslas studentu līgu, pirms veltīja sevi ģimenes interesēm. Vēlāk Ellena vairākas vasaras pavadīja mākslinieku kolonijā Vecajā Laimā, Konektikutā, kur viņu ietekmēja grupa, kas veidoja amerikāņu impresionistu kodolu. Viņas darbu izstāde tika parādīta Filadelfijas Mākslas un amatniecības ģildē tieši pirms viņas ienākšanas Baltajā namā 1913. gadā, un viņa vasarā pārdeva četras savas gleznas.

Savu 17 mēnešu laikā, būdama pirmā lēdija, Elīna lieliski vadīja politiķus un pilsoniskos līderus pa Vašingtonas graustiem, lai pievērstu uzmanību viņas „alejas atbrīvošanas rēķinam”, un viņa metās svarā par iemesliem, lai atbalstītu mākslu, skolas un darbaspēka apstākļus. Tomēr viņa varēja būt visietekmīgākā privātajā laikā kopā ar prezidentu Vilsonu. Studējusi politisko teoriju, palīdzot vīram pētīt savas agrākās grāmatas, labi izlasītā pirmā lēdija bija vairāk nekā spējīga iesaistīties politikas diskusijās. Viņa arī parādīja dedzīgus politiskos instinktus, kad palīdzēja panākt vienošanos par tarifu likumprojektu pēc tam, kad ierosināja prezidentam uzaicināt galvenos likumdevējus uz vakariņām.

Nav skaidrs, kad Elenai kļuva zināms, ka viņai ir Braita slimība - nieru slimība, kas viņu nogalināja. Pierādījumi par nieru darbības traucējumiem pirmo reizi parādījās pēc dzemdību komplikācijām 1889. gadā, bet pirmā lēdija izskatījās labi, kamēr 1914. gada martā piedzīvoja nejauku kritienu. Viņas veselība pasliktinājās pēc tam, kad viņa maijā pārraudzīja meitas kāzas un pat pēc tam, kad ārsts pārcēlās uz dzīvi Baltajā namā jūlijā, patiesība par viņas liktenīgo stāvokli Vilsonei tika atklāta tikai dažas dienas pirms viņas nāves. Kad Elens 6. augustā padevās slimībai, viņa bija trešā pirmā lēdija, kas nomira Baltajā namā, sekojot Letitijai Tailerei 1842. gadā un Karolīnai Harisonei 1892. gadā.


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Ellena Vilsone - VĒSTURE

Elēna Luīze Aksone Vilsone

"Es, protams, esmu bez ambiciozākā sieviete, un dzīvei Baltajā namā man nav nekādu pievilcību." Vilsones kundze rakstīja, lai pateiktos prezidentam Taftam par padomu attiecībā uz savrupmāju, kuru viņš atstāja. Divi gadi Ņūdžersijas pirmajā lēdijā bija devuši savu vērtīgo pieredzi sievietes pienākumos, kuras laiks pieder cilvēkiem. Viņa vienmēr ar cieņu un žēlastību spēlēja publisku lomu, bet nekad nemācēja to izbaudīt.

Tie, kas viņu pazina Baltajā namā, raksturoja viņu kā mierīgu un mīļu, mātes sievieti, glītu un izsmalcinātu. Viņas maigā dienvidu balss bija saglabājusi savu lēno vilkmi, mainoties daudzām dzīvesvietām.

Ellen Louise Axson uzauga Romā, Džordžijā, kur viņas tēvs, godājamais S.E. Aksons bija presbiteriešu ministrs. Tomass Vudro Vilsons viņu pirmo reizi ieraudzīja, kad viņam bija apmēram seši gadi, un viņa bija tikai bērns. 1883. gadā, būdams jauns jurists no Atlantas, "Tomijs" apmeklēja Romu un atkal satika "Miss Ellie Lou" - skaistu meiteni tagad, glabājot māju kādam zaudējušam tēvam. Viņš domāja: "Kādas brīnišķīgas smieklu acis!" Par spīti tūlītējai pievilcībai, viņi apprecējās tikai 1885. gadā, jo viņa nevēlējās pamest sirdi plosošo tēvu.

Tajā pašā gadā Brīna Mūra koledža piedāvāja Vilsonam skolotāja amatu par 1500 USD gada algu. Viņš un viņa līgava dzīvoja netālu no pilsētiņas, turot pie sevis mazo brāli. Humoristiski uzstājot, ka viņas pašas bērni nedrīkst piedzimt jeņķi, viņa devās pie radiem Gruzijā, lai piedzimtu Mārgareta 1886. gadā un Džesija 1887. gadā. Bet Eleonora dzimusi Konektikutā, kamēr Vilsone mācīja Veslijanas universitātē.

Viņa izcilā karjera Prinstonā sākās 1890. gadā, radot sievai jaunus sociālos pienākumus. No šādām prasībām viņa, kā vienmēr, patvērās mākslā. Viņa bija īsi mācījusies Ņujorkā, un viņas gleznu kvalitāte ir labvēlīgi salīdzināma ar tā laika profesionālo mākslu. Viņai 1913. gadā Baltajā namā bija uzstādīta studija ar jumta logu, un viņa atrada laiku gleznošanai, neskatoties uz divu meitu kāzām sešu mēnešu laikā un saimnieces pienākumiem tautai.

Vilsoni bija vēlējušies sākt administrāciju bez atklāšanas balles, un pirmās lēdijas izklaides bija vienkāršas, taču viņas neietekmētā sirsnība padarīja viņas ballītes veiksmīgas. Pirmajā dzīves gadā viņa pārliecināja savu skrupulozo vīru, ka būtu pilnīgi pareizi uzaicināt ietekmīgus likumdevējus uz privātām vakariņām, un, kad pēc šāda vakara tika panākta vienošanās par tarifu rēķinu, viņš draugam teica: „Redzi, kāda es esmu gudra sieva. ir!"

Vergu īpašnieku pēctece Elensa Vilsone aizdeva savu prestižu mājokļa uzlabošanai galvaspilsētas nēģeru graustos. Apmeklējot noplukušās alejas, viņa pievērsa tās debitantu un kongresmeņu uzmanībai. Viņas nāve pamudināja pieņemt likumprojektu, kurā viņa bija strādājusi. Viņas veselība lēnām pasliktinājās no Braita slimības, viņa mierīgi nomira 1914. gada 6. augustā. Dienu pirms nāves viņa lika ārstam apsolīt "vēlāk" pateikt Vilsonam, ka viņa cer, ka viņš apprecēsies vēlreiz, beigās nomurmināja ". labi rūpējies par manu vīru. " Drūmi cenšoties savaldīt savas bēdas, Vilsone aizveda viņu uz Romu, lai apglabātu viņas radinieku vidū.


Ellena Vilsone - VĒSTURE

Elēna Luīze Aksone Vilsone

"Es, protams, esmu bez ambiciozākā sieviete, un dzīvei Baltajā namā man nav nekādu pievilcību." Vilsones kundze rakstīja, lai pateiktos prezidentam Taftam par padomu attiecībā uz savrupmāju, kuru viņš atstāja. Divi gadi Ņūdžersijas pirmajā lēdijā bija devuši savu vērtīgo pieredzi sievietes pienākumos, kuras laiks pieder cilvēkiem. Viņa vienmēr ar cieņu un žēlastību spēlēja publisku lomu, bet nekad nemācēja to izbaudīt.

Tie, kas viņu pazina Baltajā namā, raksturoja viņu kā mierīgu un mīļu, mātes sievieti, glītu un izsmalcinātu. Viņas maigā dienvidu balss bija saglabājusi savu lēno vilkmi, mainoties daudzām dzīvesvietām.

Tajā pašā gadā Brīna Mūra koledža piedāvāja Vilsonam skolotāja amatu par 1500 USD gada algu. Viņš un viņa līgava dzīvoja netālu no pilsētiņas, turot pie sevis mazo brāli. Humoristiski uzstājot, ka viņas pašas bērni nedrīkst piedzimt jeņķi, viņa devās pie radiem Gruzijā, lai piedzimtu Mārgareta 1886. gadā un Džesija 1887. gadā. Bet Eleonora dzimusi Konektikutā, kamēr Vilsone mācīja Veslijanas universitātē.

Viņa izcilā karjera Prinstonā sākās 1890. gadā, radot sievai jaunus sociālos pienākumus. No šādām prasībām viņa, kā vienmēr, patvērās mākslā. Viņa bija īsi mācījusies Ņujorkā, un viņas gleznu kvalitāte ir labvēlīgi salīdzināma ar tā laika profesionālo mākslu. Viņai 1913. gadā Baltajā namā bija uzstādīta studija ar jumta logu, un viņa atrada laiku gleznošanai, neskatoties uz divu meitu kāzām sešu mēnešu laikā un saimnieces pienākumiem tautai.

Vilsoni bija vēlējušies sākt administrāciju bez atklāšanas balles, un pirmās lēdijas izklaides bija vienkāršas, bet viņas neietekmētā sirsnība padarīja viņas ballītes veiksmīgas. Pirmajā dzīves gadā viņa pārliecināja savu skrupulozo vīru, ka būtu pilnīgi pareizi uzaicināt ietekmīgus likumdevējus uz privātām vakariņām, un, kad pēc šāda vakara tika panākta vienošanās par tarifu rēķinu, viņš draugam teica: „Redzi, kāda es esmu gudra sieva. ir!"

Vergu īpašnieku pēctece Elensa Vilsone aizdeva savu prestižu mājokļa uzlabošanai galvaspilsētas nēģeru graustos. Apmeklējot noplukušās alejas, viņa pievērsa tās debitantu un kongresmeņu uzmanībai. Viņas nāve pamudināja pieņemt likumprojektu, kurā viņa bija strādājusi. Viņas veselība lēnām pasliktinājās no Braita slimības, viņa mierīgi nomira 1914. gada 6. augustā. Dienu pirms nāves viņa lika ārstam apsolīt "vēlāk" pateikt Vilsonam, ka viņa cer, ka viņš apprecēsies vēlreiz, beigās nomurmināja ". labi rūpējies par manu vīru. " Drūmi cenšoties savaldīt savas bēdas, Vilsone aizveda viņu uz Romu, lai apglabātu viņas radinieku vidū.


Mērija Elena Vilsone: Bērns, kura vardarbības reģistrs reformēja Amerikas likumus

“Mani sauc Mary Ellen Wilson. Es nezinu, cik man gadu. Mamma mani sit un sit gandrīz katru dienu. Mani nekad nav skūpstījusi mīlestība. Es nekad neesmu atļāvies spēlēties ar citiem bērniem, un es neuzdrošinos nevienam runāt, jo, ja es to darītu, es saņemtu pātagu. Kad mamma iet ārā, viņa mani aizslēdz guļamistabā. Es nekad neesmu bijis ārā … ”

Neapšaubāmi, šie nomācošie vārdi atsauc atmiņā neskaitāmus bērnu kontus ļaunprātīgas izmantošanas gadījumos, kas plašsaziņas līdzekļos tiek atspoguļoti pārāk bieži. Saskaņā ar armijas kopienas dienesta ģimenes aizstāvības grupas datiem, pieci bērni katru dienu mirst no vardarbības pret bērniem, bet trīs no četriem ir jaunāki par 4 gadiem.

Pirms vairāk nekā gadsimta nebija likumu, kas aizsargātu bērnus no viņu vecāku fiziskas vardarbības. Sāpīgi sodi dažiem vecākiem bija ikdienas stratēģija, kā rīkoties ar nepareizi izturējušos pēcnācēju, neraizējoties, ka viņi paši tiks sodīti.

Tomēr Marijas Elenas Vilsones gadījums 1874. gadā satricināja pamatu ļaunprātīgiem vecākiem un aizgāja tik tālu, ka izveidoja tiesiskās aizsardzības līdzekļus intervencei bērnu mājās. Mērijas Elenas liecības Ņujorkas štata Augstākās tiesas drūmajā tiesas zālē pilnībā mainīja sabiedrības izpratni par vardarbību pret bērniem un turklāt sabiedrības iesaistīšanās nozīmi šīs vardarbības novēršanā un izbeigšanā.

Mērija Ellena dzimusi 1864. gadā ģimenē Ņujorkas Hell ’s Kitchen apkārtnē. Kad tēvs nomira, viņas māte mēģināja savilkt galus kopā, veicot vienu darbu pēc otra, līdz saprata, ka vairs nevar atbalstīt Mariju.

Meitene tika nodota aizbildnībā sievietei vārdā Mary Score. Tas bija tikai pagaidu risinājums, jo viņas mātes izmisīgā finansiālā situācija nozīmēja, ka viņa nevarēja turpināt bērna aprūpes maksājumus Mary Score. Kad Mērijai Elenai bija divi gadi, viņa tika nodota Ņujorkas labdarības departamentam. Departaments iecēla Tomasu un Mēriju Makkormakas par jaunajām Mērijas Elenas glabātājām.

McCormacks ieguva bērnu savā īpašumā no Labdarības departamenta, bet, kā vēlāk tika pierādīts, to darīja ar viltotiem dokumentiem. Departaments pieprasīja ikgadēju ziņojumu par bērna stāvokli, tomēr McCormacks nebija par to ļoti centīgs. Tomass nomira drīz pēc tam, kad Mērija Elena nonāca ģimenes aprūpē. Mary McCormack atkārtoti apprecējās un kopā ar Mary Ellen pārcēlās uz dzīvokli West 41st Street, vietā, kur beidzot tika atklāts šausmīgais stāsts.

Kaimiņi bija pirmie, kuriem radās aizdomas, ka audžumātes ārstēšanā ir kaut kas neparasts. Viena no viņām, Connolly kundze, jutās diezgan norūpējusies un lūdza vietējo reliģisko darbinieci Ettu Andželu Vīleru pārbaudīt ģimeni. Izveidojot stāstu par to, kā rūpēties par slimu, mājās esošu vecu kundzi apkārtnē, Etta un Konolija paņēma atslēgas no durvju sarga un iegāja dzīvoklī, kurā dzīvoja Mērija Elena.

Tas, ko viņi redzēja, nebija aprakstāms. Etta vēlāk liecināja tiesas zālē. “Viņa bija ļoti niecīga, 5 gadus vecas auguma, lai gan tad viņai bija 9 gadi. No pannas, kas novietota uz zemas plīts, viņa mazgāja traukus, cīnoties ar apmēram tikpat smagu pannu kā viņa pati. Pāri galdam gulēja brutāla pātaga no savītiem ādas pavedieniem. Bērna niecīgajām rokām un kājām bija lietošanas pazīmes. Bet viņas stāsta skumjākā daļa bija uzrakstīta uz sejas. Apspiešanas un posta izskats, nemīlēta bērna seja, kurš redzējis tikai biedējošo dzīves pusi. ”

Etta Andžela Vīlere (1834-1921)

Vīleres kundze atzīmēja, ka bērns tika smagi ļaunprātīgi izmantots, nepietiekams uzturs un galu galā atstāts novārtā. Kā ziņots, decembrī Mērijai palika bez apaviem. Etta devās uz policiju, bet bija pārsteigta, izdzirdot, ka viņai jāsniedz pierādījumi par uzbrukumu. Acīmredzot ar aculiecinieka stāstījumu par bērna rētām un sasitumiem un skarbajiem dzīves apstākļiem nebija pietiekami. Tajā laikā bija likumi, kas aizsargāja bērnus no uzbrukumiem un baterijām, taču nebija likumu, kas iejauktos bērnu mājās.

Etta bija apņēmības pilna atrisināt šo jautājumu, tāpēc viņa vērsās pie advokāta Henrija Berga, kurš bija arī Amerikas dzīvnieku nežēlības novēršanas biedrības dibinātājs. Atbalstot kaimiņu liecības, Henrijam izdevās izvest Mēriju Elenu no ļaunprātīgajām mājām un aizveda savu audžumāti uz tiesu Ņujorkas štata Augstākajā tiesā.

Henrijs Bergs 1874. gadā mudināja izveidot Masačūsetsas biedrību nežēlības pret bērniem novēršanai (MSPCC),

Kad Mērija Elena piegāja pie sola, viņa paziņoja: “Mans tēvs un māte ir miruši. Es nezinu, cik man ir gadu, man nav atmiņu par laiku, kad es nedzīvoju kopā ar McCormacs. Pātaga vienmēr atstāja melnu un zilu zīmi uz mana ķermeņa. Tagad uz manas galvas ir melnas un zilas zīmes, ko izdarījusi mamma, kā arī griezums pieres kreisajā pusē, ko izveidoja šķēres. Viņa iesita man ar šķērēm un sagrieza. Es neatceros, ka kādreiz kāds būtu mani noskūpstījis. Mani nekad nav ņēmusi mammas klēpī un glāstījusi vai glāstījusi. Es nekad neesmu uzdrošinājies nevienam runāt, jo, ja to darītu, es tiktu sašauts. Es nezinu, par ko mani saputoja, mamma man nekad neko neteica, kad mani sita. Es negribu atgriezties dzīvot pie mammas, jo viņa mani tā sit. ”

Sīkāka informācija no 295 Park Avenue South fasādes 23. ielā Manhetenas Flatironas rajonā Ņujorkā, uzcelta 1892. gadā kā Ņujorkas bērnu nežēlības novēršanas biedrības galvenā mītne. Ēku projektēja Renwick, Aspinwall & amp; Renwick. Autors Beyond My Ken

McCormac kundzei tika piespriests viena gada sods, un Mary Ellen tika ievietota nepilngadīgo mājās. Stāsts ieguva laimīgās beigas, kad Etta Vīlere saņēma viņas aizbildnību. Mērijas Elenas gadījums piesaistīja lielu sabiedrības uzmanību, kā rezultātā notika revolucionāras izmaiņas Amerikas tiesību sistēmā. Tajā pašā gadā tika nodibināta Ņujorkas biedrība bērnu nežēlības novēršanai.

1888. gadā Marija Elēna apprecējās un drīz pēc tam kļuva par divu bērnu māti un vēlāk par adoptētu bāreņu meiteni. Viņa nosauca savu meitu par Ettu pēc Etta Wheeler, viņas glābēja un pirmās personas, kas parādīja viņas mīlestību un pieķeršanos.


Ellena Vilsone

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Ellena Vilsone, dzim Elēna Luīze Aksone, (dzimusi 1860. gada 15. maijā, Savanna, Džordžija, ASV - mirusi 1914. gada 6. augustā, Vašingtonā), amerikāņu pirmā lēdija (1913–14), ASV 28. prezidenta Vudro Vilsona pirmā sieva. Lai arī Ellen bija daudz mazāk slavena nekā viņas vīra otrā sieva Edīte Galta Vilsone, Elenai bija liela loma Vudrovas karjerā un būtiski mainījās pirmās lēdijas tradicionālā loma. Viņu, iespējams, vislabāk atceras viņas centieni uzlabot mājokļa apstākļus afroamerikāņiem Vašingtonā.

Ellena bija vecākā no septiņiem presbiteriešu ministra Semjuela Aksona un Mārgaretas Hītas Aksones bērniem. Pēdējā bērna piedzimšanas laikā 1881. gadā, kad Elenai bija 21 gads, Mārgareta Aksone nomira. Vēlākais Elles tēva garīgais sabrukums un viņa nāve 1884. gadā viņai atstāja ģimenes galvu.

Tiklīdz viņa varēja ievietot savus jaunākos brāļus un māsas pie radiem Gruzijā, Elīna paņēma savu mazo mantojumu un pārcēlās uz Ņujorku, lai studētu glezniecību Mākslas studentu līgā, kas tolaik bija neparasti drosmīgs solis jaunai sievietei. Viņas solis ir vēl pārsteidzošāks, ņemot vērā, ka viņa jau bija satikusi Vudro Vilsonu (1883. gadā), un viņš bija ierosinājis laulību. Viņa varēja palikt Gruzijā, kamēr viņš pabeidza doktora grādu, bet viņa izvēlējās neatkarīgāku kursu.

Ellena un Vudro apprecējās 1885. gada 24. jūnijā vectēva tēva mājās Savannā, Džordžijā, un viņi pārcēlās uz Bērnu Mervu, Pensilvānijā, kur viņš sāka strādāt par asociēto profesoru vēstures un politiskās ekonomikas jautājumos Bryn Mawr koledžā. Lai gan liela daļa viņas laika tika pavadīta, rūpējoties par trim meitām, kas dzimušas laikā no 1886. līdz 1889. gadam, un brāļiem un māsām, viņai izdevās apgūt vācu valodu, lai tulkotu vīram, kā arī apgūt mājturības kursu. Vudrova, strādājot Prinstonas universitātes prezidenta amatā (1902–1010), ļāva viņai uzlabot savas mājsaimniecības vadības un saimnieces prasmes, kas viņai vēlāk kalpoja Baltajā namā, un divi gadi Ņūdžersijas gubernatora amatā (1910–12) palīdzēja viņai attīstīties. publiska persona. Viņa turpināja gleznot portretus un ainavas un izstādīja savus darbus, par kuriem saņēma lieliskas atsauksmes žūrijas konkursos ar nosaukumu E.A. Vilsone pēc tam, kad viņas vīrs kļuva slavens.

Ellena kā pirmā lēdija kalpoja tikai 17 mēnešus, un lielāko daļu laika viņa bija slima. Tomēr viņa uzskaitīja laiku. Lai gan viņa neieņēma publisku nostāju attiecībā uz sieviešu vēlēšanām (pret ko viņas vīrs joprojām iebilda), viņa bija Nacionālā pilsoniskā fonda goda prezidente, iestājās par labākiem darba apstākļiem sievietēm un bērniem un enerģiski lobēja, lai uzlabotu dzīvojošos afroamerikāņus Vašingtonas alejas. Viņas centienu rezultātā tika izveidots federālais likumprojekts, kas nosaka minimālos mājokļa standartus Kolumbijas apgabalā, un to pieņēma gan parlaments, gan Senāts 1914. gada augustā, kad viņa gulēja mirstot Gaišās slimības Baltajā namā. Vēl nekad prezidenta sieva nebija bijusi tik cieši saistīta ar likumdošanu.

Ellena Vilsone tika apglabāta Romā, Džordžijā, netālu no vecāku kapiem. Kā atzīmējusi viņas biogrāfe Fransisa Saundersa, viņa parādīja, kā pirmajai lēdijai bija iespējams apvienot politisko darbu sociālo lietu vārdā ar saviem tradicionālajiem sadzīves pienākumiem.


Elena Aksone Vilsone

Elena Aksone Vilsone bija ASV pirmā lēdija (1913–1914), kad viņas vīrs Vudro Vilsons kļuva par mūsu 28. prezidentu. Viņa uzauga Romā, kur viņas tēvs mācītājs Semjuels Edvards Aksons bija Pirmās presbiterionālās baznīcas mācītājs.

Ellena ieguva izglītību Romas sieviešu akadēmijā, kur studēja mākslu, iegūstot starptautisku balvu.

Ellena un Vudrova satikās tēva baznīcā un apprecējās Savanā 1885. gadā. Viņa palīdzēja viņam agrīnajā profesora un koledžas prezidenta karjerā, vienlaikus audzinot viņu trīs meitas un turpinot interesi par mākslu.

Vēlāk Vilsones kundze mācījās pie plenēra amerikāņu impresionistiem Vecā Laimā, Konektikutā. Viņa izstādīja un pārdeva savas gleznas, ziedojot savus ienākumus Ogu skolām.

Viņa kļuva aktīva sociālās labklājības jomā, kad Vudro Vilsone bija Ņūdžersijas gubernatore (1910-1912).

Pēc tam, kad Vudro Vilsone tika ievēlēta par prezidenti, viņa lobēja pilsētu atjaunošanu Vašingtonā, kas ir pirmā pirmā lēdija, kas strādājusi kāda mērķa labā ārpus Baltā nama, kas nebija viņas vīra.

Viņas aktīvisms bija piemērs jaunajai Eleonorai Rūzveltai, kuras vīrs Franklins bija Vilsona administrācijā. Vilsones kundze izstrādāja arī oriģinālo Baltā nama rožu dārzu.

Viņa nomira Baltajā namā 1914. gada 6. augustā, sākoties Pirmajam pasaules karam.

Viņa ir apglabāta līdzās vecākiem Mirtlhila kapsētā Romā, Džordžijā.

Tēmas. Šis vēsturiskais marķieris ir norādīts šajos tēmu sarakstos: Māksla, vēstules, mūzika un buļļi Labdarība un sabiedriskais darbs un buļļi. Nozīmīgs vēsturisks datums šim ierakstam ir 1914. gada 6. augusts.

Atrašanās vieta. 34 & deg 15,297 ′ N, 85 & 10,395 ′ W. Markers atrodas Romā, Džordžijā, Floida apgabalā. Marķieri var sasniegt no Tribune ielas. Marķieris atrodas Downtown Riverfront takā aiz Foruma upes centra. Pieskarieties kartei. Marķieris atrodas šajā pasta adresē vai tās tuvumā: 301 Tribune Street, Roma GA 30161, Amerikas Savienotās Valstis. Pieskarieties, lai saņemtu norādes.

Citi tuvumā esošie marķieri. Vēl vismaz 8 citi marķieri atrodas pastaigas attālumā no šī marķiera. Operas aleja (aptuveni 300 pēdu attālumā, mērot tiešā līnijā) Sieviete, kas izglāba futbolu Gruzijā (aptuveni 500 pēdu attālumā) Floidas apgabals (aptuveni 800 pēdu attālumā) Vecpilsētas pulkstenis (aptuveni mile jūdzes attālumā) Vecpilsētas pulksteņa muzejs (aptuveni mile jūdzes attālumā) Noble Brothers Foundry (aptuveni mile jūdzes attālumā) Floida apgabala Pirmā pasaules kara memoriāls (aptuveni 0,3 jūdžu attālumā) Kārnegi bibliotēka (aptuveni 0,3 jūdžu attālumā). Pieskarieties, lai skatītu visu Romas marķieru sarakstu un karti.

Skatiet arī. . . Ellena Vilsone. Nacionālās pirmo dāmu bibliotēkas padziļināta biogrāfija. (Iesniegts 2021. gada 15. aprīlī, autors Duane Marsteller no Murfreesboro, Tenesī.)


Vēsture [rediģēt | rediģēt avotu]

Astronautu apmācība [rediģēt | rediģēt avotu]

1970. gada 6. janvārī Ellena pievienojās vēl 19 sievietēm, lai sāktu astronautu apmācību. Deke ienāca un iepazīstināja ar sevi, sakot, ka tas būs enerģisks treniņš, kura laikā viņš gaidīja, ka paliks daudz mazāk nekā 20 kandidātu. Viņš paskaidroja, ka viņi tiks novērtēti, ejot līdzi, kas ietvēra izmēģinājuma sniegumu, akadēmiķus, raksturu un motivāciju. Viņš tik bieži publicētu rezultātus, ja viņu vārdi nebūtu sarakstā, viņi tiktu izslēgti no programmas.

Vienā brīdī Treisija atrada Elenu un apstājās, lai palīdzētu viņai.

Treisija staigājot atrada Elēnu, kura bija nokritusi un savainoja pēdu, tomēr viņa minēja, ka nevar izmantot rāciju. Treisija viņai palīdzēja un teica, ka tas, iespējams, ir slikts sastiepums. Lai palīdzētu saulei, Treisija piesedzās ar Elenu un šajā procesā iepazina viņu mazliet labāk, noskaidrojot, ka Elenas ģimenei pieder Cavalier Airlines.

Pēc kāda laika Deke izsauca savu rāciju un teica visiem atlikušajiem kandidātiem, lai radio apraksta to aptuveno atrašanās vietu. Tā kā viņš nesaņēma atbildi, viņš atkal pa radio, bet uz to atbildēja Treisijs, kurš teica, ka viņam nevajag kliegt. Mediķi saņēma Elenu, un Treisijai tika dots ūdens, kamēr Deke viņai atgādināja, ka tas nav komandas vingrinājums: Elenai vajadzēja radio, un Treisijai nevajadzēja apstāties, lai viņai palīdzētu, bet Treisija viņam teica, ka viņa negrasās viņu atstāt, un viņš arī to nebūtu darījis.

Programmas 200. dienā Eds iepazīstināja piecus atlikušos kandidātus ar LEM simulatoru, kas atdarinātu Mēness moduļa kosmosa kuģa lidojuma dinamiku. Viņš viņiem teica, ka tas ir kā helikopters ar dažām atšķirībām. Viņš viņiem teica, ka šīs dienas aktivitāte būtu veikt pamata pacelšanās un nosēšanās manevrus, katram no viņiem lidojot 300 pēdu augstumā, lidinot 30 sekundes, veicot 360 griezienu pulksteņrādītāja virzienā, lidiniet vēl 30 sekundes un nolaižoties uz mērķi . Tomēr Petija Doila zaudēja kontroli pār simulatoru un avarēja.

Atlasīts kā astronauts [rediģēt | rediģēt avotu]

Pēc Patijas Doilas nāves Mollija Koba sēž bārā Outpost Tavern, kur viņai pievienojas Elena, Treisija Stīvensa un Danielle Pūla, kas stāsta, ka viņa nokavējusi šo pakalpojumu. Viņi cenšas viņu mierināt, jo Pam pasniedz sievietēm dzērienus, bet Mollija nesaka ne vārda, kamēr nepiemin, ka Petijai vajadzēja izgrūst un ka programma, iespējams, tiks atcelta.

Deke presei prezentē visas astronautes.

1970. gada 27. oktobrī Tomass ir neizpratnē par to, kurš sasauca preses konferenci. Konferencē Deke paziņo, ka Danielle, Ellen, Molly un Treisija bija pirmās sievietes, kas pabeidza visas NASA nepieciešamās astronautu apmācības. Viņš iepazīstina ar katru no viņiem un paspiež viņiem roku, kamēr prese svētkos aplaudē. Deke dodas pie Tomasa, kurš stāsta, ka nav atļāvis to, ko viņš ir darījis. Deke to apzinājās un atgādināja, ka viņš ir tas, kurš izlemj, kurš un kad iet uz augšu. Tomass apsveica viņu ar Niksona sūdu saraksta izveidi.

Outpostā Elens runāja ar Lāru, kurš viņai teica, ka viņa būs Mollijas dubliere. Ellena viņam teica, ka Mollija ir viņu klases labākā pilote, kas plaukst zem spiediena. Tomēr vīrietis viņai teica, ka Eds ir bezjēdzīgs cilvēks, un Mollija "mīl sūdus", kas nozīmēja, ka Elenai, visticamāk, varētu uzkrist. Viņa beidzot devās mājās kopā ar Pamu Hortonu.

Lerijam Vilsonam tika piezvanīts agri no rīta, un Kops viņam pateica, ka viņiem nepieciešama Elēna pulksten 6 no rīta, jo tikko bija mainījies galvenās apkalpes treniņu grafiks. Tomēr Ellen nebija kopā ar viņu, bet gan ar Pamu Hortonu, kurš pacēla klausuli un vēlāk lika Elenai sagatavoties.

Brauciena laikā Lerijs iedeva Elenai, Elena mēģināja paskaidrot, ka ir daudz dzērusi, un abi ar Pamu bija nolēmuši, ka labāk būtu, ja viņa nebrauktu. Lāra tomēr teica Elenai, ka abi kļūst pavirši, un viņa nevar atļauties melot ierēdņiem, vai arī viņa var pārtraukt karjeru. Viņš lūdza viņu rīkoties tā, kā visi gaidīja, lai viņi rīkotos, un viss būs kārtībā. Ieejot NASA, viņi abi turējās rokās.

Outpostā sievietes pulcējās ne tik daudz, lai redzētu Apollo 23, bet gan, lai Ilinoisas štata Senātā redzētu Vienlīdzīgu tiesību grozījumu, kas bija Teda Kenedija galvenā prioritāte. Kad galīgais balsojums tika nodots par, Pam Hortons un Ellena Vilsone apskāva, un arī Lerijs Vilsons apskāva Elenu.

Uzņēmumā Outpost Pam, Ellen un Larry runāja par vienlīdzīgu tiesību grozījumu, taču Lerijs minēja, ka amerikāņi nekādā veidā neskatīsies, kā viņu meitas dodas karā, bet Pams minēja, ka viņi mēdza teikt to pašu par sievietēm un paskatījās uz Elenu. Lerijs viņam teica, ka vienlīdzīgas tiesības nenozīmē to pašu, kas geju tiesības.

Izstādes laikā Lerijs pastāstīja Pamam un Elenai, ka viņš ir nopratināts, minot, ka parasti FIB izpauž šos noslēpumus, jo krievi var izmantot šos noslēpumus, lai jūs šantažētu. Lerijs lika Elenai būt gatavai, jo tas, ko viņa izdarīja, bija noziegums, bet viņiem tas bija vajadzīgs, lai turpinātu darbu NASA.

Pam un Ellen apskaujās gultā, bet Ellen saka Pam, iespējams, viņiem vajadzētu atpūsties, jo FIB izmeklēšanas rezultātā viņa tika likvidēta, un viņa arī nezina, kur virzās viņas attiecības ar Pamu, jo viņa nebija pārliecināta, ka tā varētu aiziet jebkur. ja būt lesbiete viņai bija posms.

Izmeklēja FIB [rediģēt | rediģēt avotu]

FIB aģents intervēja Elenu, lai noskaidrotu, vai Lerijs ir gejs.

Ellenu intervē FIB darbinieks un minēja, ka viņas klaustrofobija ir bērnības bailes, no kurām viņa tika pāri. Viņa sacīja, ka viņai ir teikts, ka viņas medicīniskā informācija ir konfidenciāla, un viņu kaitināja tas, ka viņš to šķirstīja. Viņš minēja, ka nevēlas viņu kaitināt, un atgādināja, ka var viņu izraidīt no programmas. Tomēr viņa teica, ka zina, ka ir tikai tur, jo viņš uzskatīja, ka viņas draugs ir gejs, bet viņš viņai teica, ka viņi nav tur, lai runātu par viņas draugu, jo viņš nevarēja viņu saprast, jo viņas profils padarīja viņu daudz labāku par Leriju Vilsons kopš homoseksuāļa. Viņš spieda viņu stāstīt viņai Lerija patiesību, bet nespēja.

Elēna par to runāja ar Leriju un Pamu, un Lerijs minēja, ka viņu tālruņi, iespējams, ir kļūdaini. Viņi skatījās ziņas Outpost un turpināja dzert.

Veisners stāsta Elenai, ka aģents Donahue uzskatīja, ka Lerijs ir homoseksuālis, kas varētu radīt drošības draudus programmai, tomēr radās jauns uzskats, ka Elēna ir arī homoseksuāle, ko viņa kvalificēja kā absurdu. Veisners viņai teica, ka viņi netic, ka ir pienācis laiks seksa skandālam. Viņa stāsta, ka nevarēja kontrolēt Donahu vai tieslietu departamentu, un Veisners viņai teica, ka gan viņa, gan Lerijs varētu spert papildu soli attiecībās.

Ellena ieteica apprecēties ar Leriju Outpost, kas Pam nepatika.

Priekšpostenī Ellen saka Lerijam, ka viņi nevar ļaut izpaust savu noslēpumu. Lerijs viņai saka, ka, virzoties uz priekšu, viņi tiktu novietoti drošākā zonā, bet Pams pasaka Elenai, ka, ja viņa turpinās, starp abiem noteikti viss beigsies.

Elēna nokļūst mājās un atver savu vējstiklu, bet ārā ierauga mašīnu, kas, tiklīdz uzmetusi aci, aizbrauc.

Vēlāk Ellena un Lerijs apprecējās.

Apollo 24 [rediģēt | rediģēt avotu]

NASA astronauti, tostarp Danielle, vēro, kā tiek svinēts Gordo, kurš viņus nolaidis uz Zemes, kā arī apsveic Elenu, kura tagad bija precējusies ar Leriju, kļūstot par jauno Apollo 24 komandieri. Deke piemin, ka patiesībā viņš bija daļa no Merkura un minēja, ka viņš spēj lidot, bet par vadītāju norīkoja Elenu, jo zināja, ka viņa ir ļoti spējīga. Intervētājs tomēr min, ka Danielas nelaimes gadījums Džeimstaunā ir radījis jautājumu par to, ka sievietes dzīvo uz Mēness, taču Elena aizstāvēja savu līdzcilvēku. Harijs aizstāv intervētāja acīmredzamo uzbrukumu Elenai, sakot, ka viņš neuztraucas par kalpošanu viņai.

Elenai, Harijam un Dekei vēlāk NASA teica, ka, pieslēdzoties LSAM, viņiem būs jāveic sistēmas pārbaude. Ellena jautā, kāda būtu viņu krava, bet sieviete viņiem atbildēja, ka viņi joprojām nezina. Deke jautāja, kas ir noslēpums, jo tas, iespējams, būtu tikai 20 000 mārciņu pārtikas un gāzes.

Apollo 24 tika palaists, lai atgūtu Edu, kurš 159 dienas atradās uz Mēness. Deke piezvanīja Hjūstonai, sakot, ka viņi ir gatavi injekcijai uz Mēness. Gordo apstiprināja, ka viņi ir saņēmuši ziņu, un jautāja Deke, vai viņam patīk skats. Un tā Deke, Ellen un Harijs virzījās uz priekšu. Tomēr, kad viņi mēģināja aizdegties, tas neizdevās.

Apollo 24 un 25 sāka sadarboties, lai labotu 24. Viņi uzstādīja vajadzīgo FCC un pēc tam uzsāka pārbaudi, kuru Margo vadīja. Elīna piemin, ka tvertnes spiediens ir pieaudzis. Margo saprata, kas notiek, un lika viņiem panākt, lai atlikušie astronauti tiktu prom no pastiprinātāja, jo tas vēl bija bruņots. Bija par vēlu pastiprinātājs aizdedzies, liekot Dekei iesisties stūres sprauslā, un Harijs ieslīdēja pa pastiprinātāju dzinēja izplūdes gāzē, kas izšķīda izplūdes gāzu siltumā. Mollija atvienoja piesiešanas turētāju no 25. līdz 24. un pēc tam zaudēja tvērienu un atlaida. Mollija minēja, ka viņai gandrīz vairs nav skābekļa, un viņi mēģināja viņu atrast, jo viņi viņu neredzēja. Treisijai izdevās viņu redzēt, taču Apollo 24 joprojām nebija saziņā.

Mission control got the trajectory on 24, but did not know if they were dead or alive. Apollo 24 was not heading for the moon at all and could not communicate.

Ellen comes to after Deke calls her. He tells her that she needs to abort the burn and also tells her he does not have much left in his OPS and he has a puncture in his suit. However, her abort handle is non-responsive, and Houston can not be reached. She pulls on a chord only to find out Harry had been lost in space. She pulls on Deke's chord and is able to bring him into the ship. They close the hatch and are able to remove their helmets, but Deke had been stabbed by the smashed steering thruster, so Ellen tells him to apply pressure on the wound. She tries reaching Houston once again, but they remain uncommunicative.

Ellen placed stitches on Deke's wound while the latter told her that Harry died.

Ellen put stitches on Deke's wound, who complained that their communication problems were most likely due to their comm systems having been updated. Ellen told him to calm down and also reminded him that they were risking losing lunar orbit, also asking if he was up for another burn, which he nodded to. Deke told her that Harry had been dragged into the plume, which swallowed him whole. The CSM separated and they kept moving.

It seemed Ellen and Deke were now heading towards the moon and were moving very fast. Ellen switched to manual, but depleted the SPS and they did not make it by thirty feet. However, in mission control Margo stumbled upon everybody celebrating since they now knew they were alive. Aleida went to NASA and saw Margo, who was still working.

Deke was disgusted when Ellen told him her big secret.

Deke tells Ellen that their death would not be the worst way to go. He also tells her that he kind of wants to see how far they get, but lets out a cry of pain. Ellen looks at his wound and notices internal bleeding Deke tells her that he had always thought he had seen a bit of John Glenn in her since whenever she wanted to walk into a room, people saw her and listened to her. He tells her that his "in case of death letter" was bad since he was distracted and only had two minutes to write it. He tells Ellen that Marge deserved better and still could not believe Marge had said yes to him. He asks Ellen for her story ad she tells him that it was nice how Larry had proposed. He tells him that Larry had taken her to Memorial Park, but did not finish the story and said that she did not know what she was doing since she was heading towards nowhere and tells Deke that she had to hide parts of who she was and told him that she did not love Larry, but Pam. Deke realized Pam was the bartender and laughed until he realized she was serious and was disgusted.

Karen went to Outpost, where Pam was told that Ellen was alive by Larry. He did not tell her anything else. Karen asked her if she was Pam and told her that Ed went there a lot. She asked Pam to surprise her and she told her that Ed always spoke highly of the place, but it was a shithole. Karen told her that it was understood that wives do not go to Outpost, and Pam complained that men had a lot of rules, which Karen called bullshit. Pam told her that the country looked up to them and told her that she would not feel sorry for her, but apologized, saying that the last few days had been rough since she knew some all of astronauts. She told Karen that she had become "good friends" with Ellen, but was not being told anything by anyone. Karen told Pam that Ed was her husband, and told Pam that it was okay, also telling her that she should go to JSC with her.

Deke asked Ellen if she was aware of the security risks, since she was opening herself up to blackmail, manipulation. Ellen told him that that was not fair, but Deke told her that she was putting everybody at risk. Ellen said she believed that he would understand because he had pushed for the women when nobody else had, but Deke told her that that was because they were good pilots and being women was beside the point. Ellen told Deke that the world was changing and that he helped do it. Deke started letting out a cry of pain, and Ellen told him to breathe.

Ellen fed Deke, who was now laying down. They suddenly heard Ed radio to them and Ellen responded, saying they were there to rescue him. He greeted Ellen and asked how Deke was doing, but Ellen told him that space had made Deke more soft and cuddly than usual. Ed said he was sorry to hear that and told them how the plan would go.

Deke advised Ellen to not reveal her secret since the world had too many people who thought like him.

Deke regains his ability to talk and weakly told Ellen that she has great things ahead and that if they made it through, to not tell anybody else. He tells her to keep it to herself since there were too many people like him and it was all they would see.

Ed radios 24 and tells them that Houston was working on a fix, but Deke says that there would be no time for him to dock. Ellen suggests Ed throwing a tank. Weisner argues against it, but Margo tells him to shut up or fuck off. Ed removes the tank while Ellen exits 24 he throws the tank, but it went a little too high. Ellen removed her chord and jumped, successfully attaching it to the tank and barely able to hold on to it. Everybody at Houston celebrates, completely impressed by the stunt.

Ellen goes back to 24, asking Deke if he had seen her, but sees he is slumped and not moving. At Houston, everybody finds out Deke has passed and look at Marge. Weisner personally walks up to her and takes his glasses off, breaking the news to her. Karen hugs Marge, who starts crying.

When Ellen makes it to the moon, they stand in front of Shane's grave and drop Deke's pin on the ground, also burying him next to Shane's grave.

Ed tells Ellen that she should probably rest since during the next few days, they would start digging, but Ellen tells him that he would be returning on Osprey. Ed tells her that they can not expect to hold the mission then, since she would be alone and could not leave the base after everything that had happened. He mentioned another relief mission that would be there in a few days, but Ellen tells him that she would send him back home. Ellen tells him that she relieves him as commander of Jamestown and Ed nods.

Ellen is interviewed over what had happened with Deke. Ellen tells them that Deke had been a pioneer and a stubborn man, having helped everybody get to space. A reporter tells her that travelling to space now seemed like a dangerous endeavor, but Ellen says that everybody knows the risk and it was worth it because things could get better. In order to say goodbye, she said she loved Larry. After she hung up, she found an ant running on the floor of Jamestown.

1983 [ edit | rediģēt avotu]

On May 21, 1983, at what is now known as Jamestown Colony, Ellen asks Larry for no more parties, but he tells her it was not his idea. She accepts and tells him that she does not want a birthday party, but would be fine with a welcome home party since she did not want to be reminded she was 40 now. She told him that she was handing the base off to the new commander, who was outside with the rest of the crew, so she had the base to herself for probably the last time, which she wanted to enjoy. After they said goodbye, Ellen moved through the base and looked around.

Meanwhile, astronauts walked outside with flashlights. Wubbo tells Molly his team that he was positioning the rover so that they could see the sunrise. They all turned off their flashlights and were soon iluminated by the sun. Molly told Wubbo to stop staring at his screen and look at the sun, which he did. The astronauts started singing, joined by Ellen at the base.

When a serious solar flare was headed their way, Ellen told all the astronauts to head back to the base, so they headed to the rover. However, Molly Wubbo were too far out to make it back to the base, so Molly told Ellen that they would find shelter in place. Molly told Wubbo that there was a lava tube next to base camp where they would meet inside. Wubbo agreed and they started moving.

Ellen instructed everybody to lock everything down and headed to an underground bunker, where they would stay for at least three hours. Meanwhile, Molly reached the lava tube, but did not hear back from Wubbo when she talked to him. She looked through a powerful camera lens and found that Wubbo's rover had flipped and the astronaut was not moving.

As the storm reached the moon, Molly went inside the lava tube and was told by Ellen to stay inside at all times. She looked out as the sand on the moon's surface started moving and took off her dosimeter watch. After that, she headed outside in order to reach Wubbo and ran across the storm. When she reached Wubbo, she found he was injured and unconscious, and carried him back to the lava tube, which was not an task for her. She looked at Wubbo's dosimeter and found it was red when she held hers, she was still green.

Molly tells Ellen that she took shelter in the lava tube, trying to reach Wubbo, but when the two finally reached Jamestown, she was not feeling very well herself. Ellen tells her that she made the right call and a doctor says that it is uncertain how bad Wubbo would be, but would likely develop cancer in the next few years. Ellen tells Molly that she would be returning to Houston with her, but Molly complains since her dosimeter was green. Ellen tells her that her decision was final.

Margo talks to Ellen through a video communicating device and asks her how the power situation was holding up. Ellen says that they were recuperating and told Ed that life support systems should be doing fine, but the Mars program would have to be put on hold, also mentioning that the fuel rods were damaged. Margo takes note that they would need to send more plutonium and says that she would alert Guam to implement nuclear transportation guidelines, only to be told by Bradford that they would need to ask the Pentagon first. Thomas walks in with news that the president wanted to ease tensions with the Soviets, mentioning that putting missles on Pathfinder was on hold for now and that they needed an American astronaut and a Soviet cosmonaut to come together for a handshake in space. Margo laughed, but Thomas told Ed to prep the crew. Margo said that it would never be done, but Thomas told her to relax and to figure something out.

Ellen looks around Jamestown and remembers how long she had been up there in total, preparing to leave and assigned Al as commander of Jamestown. She got into the LSAM with Molly and more people who were ready to go back to Earth.

Molly and Ellen make it to Earth, where the former is not feeling so good. They are received by many people, and Ellen thanks the crew. Wayne greets Molly and hugs her he gets her out of there and tells her nobody would notice.

At Ellen and Larry's house, they both watched the news, joined by another man, who told Larry he needed to go, and kissed him. Ellen tells Larry that he had "trained" the man well. She asks him if it is a serious relationship, but he says he does not know. Ellen says that she is not ready for any romance at the moment since she was busy, and asks Larry if he had been promoted, but he says he had not since Boeing only gave people promotions in December. They say goodbye to one another and leave.

Ellen was welcomed to the administrative side of NASA by Thomas, Margo, and Bradford.

Ellen makes it to NASA, where she greets Margo, Thomas, and Bradford. Margo tells her their first meeting would be concerning budgets and they begin talking. Margo says they need more money for Jamestown and they would need to get it from the Mars program. Ellen says that the Mars program was very delayed and said that there had to be another way, but Thomas says that they need to pick their battles. Margo looks through index cards and finds Aleida Rosales listed, and asks for a minute.

Ellen asked Thomas about funding Mars instead of the moon.

Ellen visits Thomas and tells him that the moon had sucked up a lot of funding, but Mars could give them an upper hand. He tells her that she has a problem - she did not fool anyone and he told her that she needed to be a better poker player, revealing that he had written a speech in which a senator attacked their lunar costs. She asked why, and he said that the senator needed to demonstrate independence, which had in turn granted NASA the ability to self-fund and would give them enough money to explore Mars as long as the democrats did not win. She tells him that it must have been difficult for him to have lost his job once Kennedy had gotten elected. He says it was part of the job, which he had lobbied his way into during the war after being impressed by the stars. Ellen mentions she was surprised that he actually loved space and was not just some politician, but he says that it was fine if people saw him that way since they were the ones who made everything happen. He tells her that she would help him greatly since she was very genuine, but tells her not to lose track of who she really was.

Larry is having dinner with another man when Ellen gets home. Larry asks her how her day was, but they told her they would head out. Larry asks her to join them, but she declines. He hands her her mail and leaves. As Ellen opens it up, she stumbles upon a package sent by Pam, which was her book. On the front page Pam asks if Ellen knew which poem was about her, and Ellen starts reading the book.

Ed told everyone that he wanted Danielle to command the Apollo mission, and everybody agreed.

Ellen, Bradford, Margo, and Thomas congratulated him on his nine years of service as head of the astronaut office. When Ed asked if he had to make a wish, Margo told him that it had already been granted since he would be commanding Pathfinder. Ed blows out the candle and the meeting begins. Thomas tells them that the Soviets had agreed to mount a mission with them on the moon, which nobody likes. Bradford says that the only reason they accepted was so that they could get a closer look on American technology, but Ellen says that they have old technology which they could use. Everybody likes the idea of that, and Thomas asks Ed to choose a crew. He says the commander would be Danielle, but Thomas says that they might want to consider different possibilities since they only wanted the best. Ed asks what that was supposed to mean, since what had happened to Danielle's arm was not her fault Ellen agrees with Ed and Margo does as well. Everybody likes the idea and Bradford mentions that this would be a powerful message, and after Thomas says that he would let everybody know, he asks him to tell him if anybody gave him any trouble so he could call the Secretary of Defense so he would support it.

A ceremony is held, and Soviet cosmonauts are received by NASA. Margo tells Thomas that she believes if she can pretend to be happy, the Russians could pretend as well. They greet the cosmonauts, and Ellen greets one in Russian, but tells him she is not fluent, which makes Molly laugh. Danielle greets the cosmonauts happily, and they move forward.

Later, Ellen asked how they were supposed to get anywhere if nobody wanted to share information, and Bradford simply responded that they would not get anywhere. Margo complained, and Bradford told her that he was confident that she would make things not move forward.

Ellen walks with Pam, who tells her that she does not know what will happen between them, and she could not toss her life aside for her again. Ellen told her that she was not asking her to, but wanted both of them to figure out what their relationship meant. Pam told her that it was an affair, but Ellen told her that it did not have to be just that, but Pam tells her that it was hard to trust her, and Ellen suggests that she did not have to be at NASA since she wanted her, saying that she was willing to do anything in order to keep her, but Pam tells her that since she was a public figure she did not want Elise to find out because somebody saw them holding hands in the park.

The next day, Margo, and Aleida presented the docking system to Thomas, Ellen, Bradford and the Apollo-Soyuz team. Sergei talked to the Soviets and they agreed that it would work for them. Margo told Sergei that they would need to coordinate their approach while in space, and Sergei gave her the frequencies, with Margo returning the favor. Thomas told Ellen that the cat was out of the bag now, and Ellen agreed.

Ellen sat with Larry and he mentions that he knew she was with someone because she was glowing. Ellen tells him that she had found Pam again through her book, which surprised him. He told her that he was happy for her, but realized that she would be coming out. Larry was surprised, saying that he did not know that they had a specific time planned for coming out. Ellen mentions that they should start living their lives and getting a divorce, which freaks him out, since he believed they were sharing a life together, and he loved her. She told him that she felt alone since she had lost Pam the first time. Larry understood, and mentioned that he would do anything for Ellen. She leaves and tells him they would talk when she returned.

In New York Ellen and Thomas have a drink before negotiating a space alliance with Korea. He told her that the Koreans were party animals, which she says exhausts her, but he tells her she will do great. She tells him that she had been meaning to tell him, but is interrupted by a phone call. When she takes the call, she thanks the caller and tells Thomas that her father had a heart attack. Thomas remembered he was in Connecticut, so he told her to use the limo and he would take a taxi to the airport.

Ellen visited her dad in the hospital when he had a heart attack.

Ellen's father tells her he is sorry she missed her flight for nothing, but she tells him that he had a heart attack and needs to take care of himself. He reminds her that he is running a half-a-billion-dollar company, which she understood. He tells her that if she wanted him to slow down then she would need to help him, which would not happen soon, but she tells him that she is thinking of leaving NASA since she wanted to get to Mars and believed that private spaceflight would be the only way to do it. He wonders what Larry has to say, and she tells him that he only wants her to be happy, which gladdened him, since she would always have a solid man by her side, but he would like grandkids.

Ellen is interrupted and told that the White House wanted to speak to her. She went to the phone and received news that the flight Thomas was on had been shot by the Soviets, leaving no survivors. However, the Soviets had not confirmed this nor apologized.

NASA officials wondered why Tom's plane had been flying over Sakhalin.

At a meeting, Margo asks what the airliner was doing flying over Sakhalin and Molly says it could have been a navigational error, but Margo thought 400 miles was too much and wondered why a commercial airliner would be shot down. Bradford mentioned they had spy planes flying over Sakhalin all the time, so the Soviets were paranoid. However, he mentioned that it was more likely that they suspected that the plane was being used to spy, but said that it would be ridiculous. Molly was annoyed that she had not been able to reach Poole or Morrison, but Bradford told her that the FBI had shut down access to all Soviet officials in the US including the Apollo-Soyuz engineers. Ellen agreed and told everybody that she had spoken to the White House and until they found a replacement, she would be acting administrator. She mentions that their priority was contacting the astronauts, maybe contacting Sergei first.

Bradford asks if they will really ask for help after being attacked by the Soviets, and Margo tells him that Sergei will listen to reason. Ellen tells Bradford that they should consider all their available options before making the whole situation worse. Ellen tells Margo that she would contact him. When Margo leaves, she whispers something in Ellen's ear and leaves.

Margo tells a Senator over the phone that she was doing everything she could to contact the astronauts while Larry helps her with coffee. Pam walks in and asks if it was a bad time, but Ellen walks up and kisses her. Larry greets Pam as well and tells her that the phone had not stopped ringing all day. Ellen asks for money for NASA's security and is told that she would get it.

When Ellen was finally able to take a break, she talked to Pam grieving Tom's death.

After a while, Ellen was still on the phone while Pam got bored. Ellen hangs up the phone and apologizes, but Pam tells her it was fine and mentions she was good at her job. Pam gives Ellen a massage and they kiss Ellen tells Pam she is fine, but was exhausted and overwhelmed since she would have been on that plane if her father had not had a heart attack. Pam tells her not to think about it, but Ellen did not like hearing that Thomas was meant to die and says that he was a good man, but mostly misunderstood. Pam tells Ellen that she is alive and with her, which she was grateful for and the two hug. The phone rings once again and Ellen is told that the president would be speaking to her.

Larry helps Ellen with her coffee and they both mention they could not sleep. He asks her how she is doing, and she mentions she does not know since she was overwhelmed. He tells her that she would have to say goodbye to Mars for at least a decade since the military was taking control, but she did not like that, though she does not know what to do about it. He tells her that she is the acting administrator of NASA and needed to prove she had things under control so she could have everybody's trust.

Margo, Molly and Bradford are called to a meeting along with other people who did not know what the meeting was about. Ellen walks in and greets everybody, telling them that the president had decided to arm Pathfinder. Bradford agrees with it since they were being left with no choice, but Margo mentions it is a defensive measure until it suddenly is not. Ellen ignores her and proceeds to say that they were moving up the retaking of lunar claim site 357 Bravo, which would happen within 48 hours. Molly says that the plan was to use lunar night in order to maintain the element of surprise and reminds Ellen that the astronauts had not finished training, but Ellen tells them that the president was comfortable with moving forward after her recommendations. Margo and Molly were left in shock.

The claim has been taken back by American astronauts and Ellen, Margo and Bradford inform the president about their success. Margo asks about Apollo-Soyuz and Ellen says that since they have the moral high ground, they should keep it and the president agrees, also noting her great work, nominating her to the Senate and naming her permanent NASA administrator and asks her to think about it. Bradford and Margo congratulate her and think it is ridiculous that she was thinking it over, adding that they could go to Mars now. Bradford tells Margo that the Soviets had delayed the Buran shuttle probably due to repairs and tells Margo that they had probably figured it out by themselves.

Ellen told Pam that what she wanted was to be with her.

Pam asks Ellen if she is okay, so Ellen tells her about being offered to be NASA's administrator. Pam congratulates her, but she says she would not take it and was waiting for the right time to tell her. However, Pam tells her that she could be part of Raegan's cabinet and asks her if that was not everything she ever wanted since she could go to Mars. However, Ellen tells her that she is what she wants and they kiss.

Paramedics try helping the injured cosmonauts while Rossi, the commander, spoke to Houston on the line. The astronauts tell the commander that they had perceived a hostile intent, but the cosmonauts had only been reaching for their translation cards. Ellen asks them if they were sure that there were no weapons on sight before she took the incident to the president.

Ellen tells Bradford and Margo that the situation was not good, and Margo points out that wars have started over a lot less.

Ellen, Margo, and Bradford watch the news, where the Soviet Union mentions they would not be intimidated and knew that the United States had plans to bring nuclear weapons to the moon and said that they would get in the way and destroy them before they got there. Bradford tells them that there had just been a launch from Sakhalin island - the Buran shuttle, which the CIA says was armed. Ellen mentions that was a problem since it could orbit space, shoot them down and they would never even see it coming. Margo takes her glasses off angrily once everyone leaves.

They track the shuttle at DODCOM, but after three hours, they find that they had done was dock it with their space station, which made Margo think that they were overreacting. Bradford would like to believe that, but mentions that they had been stockpiling fuel on that station. Suddenly, Buran launched and Bradford mentioned it could shoot Sea Dragon down before it entered lunar orbit, which worries Ellen since the moon was being blockaded.

Ellen told Bradford and Margo that since the cosmonaut had asked the United States for asylum, they would grant it to him.

Ellen tells Margo and Bradford that since the cosmonaut had requested asylum, they would grant it, which is what the president had said. Ellen tells them that the plan was to get him to the United States on the next shuttle the next month. Margo stops Ellen and asks her if she had asked the president about Apollo-Soyuz. Ellen says that they had not, but would recommend that they cancel it if she was asked her opinion. Margo asks if they could wait to see if the Russians launched Soyuz and Ellen agrees to see how things played out.

Ellen was heartbroken when Pam told her that she would leave her.

Pam leaves Ellen a letter in which she tells her that she still loves Elise, hoping she understood and leaves. Larry walks up to Ellen and she tells him about the letter. Larry comforts Ellen, who does not understand and cries.

Ellen makes it to mission control, where she is told by Margo that the Soviets were asking for more time before docking with no reason given. Margo is optimistic, but Molly tells them it has to do with the lunar blockade. Margo asks about Buran, but Ellen tells her is classified which Margo finds ridiculous since they would not be able to make informed decisions.

Ellen tells Margo and Molly that they could not keep this up, but Margo does not want to give up since they were on the brink of war. She asks Ellen for one more orbit, and she gives Margo 90 minutes. Molly tells Bill that they had one more orbit before they called it quits, which Aleida protests since people had worked very hard. Molly asks Bill who Aleida is and mentions she likes her when she sees her attitude.

Margo finds Ellen and Bradford and tells them that Jamestown was not responding. Margo says that there was a backup, but Bradford tells her that it might not be that simple and reveals that there was a second reactor in order to make weapons on the moon which meant there was no failsafe. She tells them to forget that it was nonsensical to have nuclear weapons on the moon, but to keep it from the people in charge was wrong. She storms out of the room after that.

Ellen tells Ed about Jamestown and he remembers he put everybody on that base. Sally asks why they would attack Jamestown, but they do not know. Ed tells them that they saw a weakness in them and Bradford tells them that they were their last hope. They start losing signal as they reach the far side of the moon.

In NASA's mission control, the siren starts sounding, so Ellen tells them they're in DEFCON 2 since the Soviet fleet off the coast of Panama is threatening the southern United States with ten nuclear bombs threatening Houston alone. Margo tells everyone where the bomb shelters are at, telling them that whoever wanted to go should go, but only one person leaves. Margo tells Bill that they would need to bring Apollo home.

Apollo and Soyuz were finally able to dock together after a long time.

Bill and Aleida tell Apollo how to get back down, but Danielle refuses and tells him they would proceed with the docking maneuver. Danielle tells him that she would not be going back down. When Margo tells her what her orders were, Danielle told her she was choosing to ignore her orders and told them to begin docking procedures lest they crash. Molly says that she does not care what Danielle had said since she had been given an order, which Makes Margo comment that maybe it was due to it being okay that she had not followed orders many times before. Before Molly could react, Ellen tells them that it was okay for them to proceed since at least one good thing should happen on that shitty day. Aleida does not believe it, but Bill lets her talk to the astronauts, which Margo encourages. Apollo begins approaching Soyuz and they ultimately dock.

Ellen is called by the president, who told her Apollo-Soyuz was beautiful and inspirational, which Ellen felt they needed. Raegan asks for the status of Pathfinder and Buran, who were still out of communication range.

Buran had missile lock on Sea dragon 17, so Ed sits down again, telling her he would do what he had to and shoots Sea Dragon down. They look at the cosmonauts and turn back from the moon. Houston contacts them and Ellen asks if they had engaged with Buran, but Ed says they had not, which Ellen is relieved to hear.

Later, at Tracy and Gordo's graves, Ed cries and leaves a deck of cards on top of Gordo's. Molly, Ellen, Danielle, Jimmy, Danny, Karen and Kelly cry as well. Karen leaves Tracy flowers.


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Ellen Wilson: Historian and author of ground-breaking works on the abolition of the British slave trade

The historian Ellen Wilson wrote a series of important books that laid the foundations for much of the scholarly discussion that took place in 2007 on the bicentenary of the British abolition of the slave trade. Based in York in later life, she had earlier worked as a journalist in the American mid-west during the Second World War.

Of Cornish and Irish stock, she was born Ellen Gibson in Wisconsin in 1919, and graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1941 in history andjournalism. Beginning on a small local newspaper, she moved to the Milwaukee Journal's state desk in 1943(the first woman to do so), and specialised in welfare reporting. In 1950 she was awarded a Reid fellowship to enable her to study the new welfare state, and the emerging new towns in Britain. This interest led to her appointment as a public-relations officer for the new John Kennedy administration in Washington in the early 1960s. It was there that she met Henry S. Wilson, the English historian of Africa. Following their marriage, she moved with him first to Aberystwyth and then to York.

In Britain she turned her research and writing skills in a new direction, making a new name for herself as the author of a series of important books. Initially her work was published in the New Shell Guides, to Britain and then to England. But her major and perhaps most durable impact came from three historical studies. The first was The Loyal Blacks (1976), on the remarkable story of freed slaves who sided with the British during and after the American War of Independence. This pioneering study enabled later historians (notably Simon Schama in his 2005 Rough Crossings) to give the subject wider currency.

Her study of John Clarkson's expedition to take some of those freed slaves "back to Africa" (John Clarkson and the African Adventure, 1980) was another innovative book, rooted in exhaustive research and written in Wilson's compelling narrative style. It too opened up an area of interest explored by more recent scholars. The qualities of her biography of the abolitionist Thomas Clarkson (1989) were not fully and publicly appreciated until 2007, when the bicentenary of abolition in 1807 generated remarkable widespread attention to the British abolition of the slave trade. Scholars' serious engagement with the nature and narrative of British abolition revealed how much had been learned from Wilson's earlier work.

In all those books, she proved herself an exemplary scholar, and a writer who could satisfy specialist and general reader alike. But she was also a writer who could turn her hand to a range of topics, from West African cookery to the local history of her own part of Yorkshire. Friends and colleagues will remember her fondly for the grace and warmth of her friendly social entertainment, the elegance of her various Yorkshire homes – and for that breath of fresh American air she brought to the crustier corners of local life. Her last days were brightened by the thrill and the promise brought by the election of Barack Obama, bringing back memories of her earlier career in Washington under JFK.

Ellen Gibson, historian: born Eau Claire, Wisconsin 13 November 1919 married 1964 Henry S. Wilson died York 4 December 2008.


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