Informācija

Pīrsa kabinets

Pīrsa kabinets


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Mārsija piedzima zemnieku ģimenē Šturbridžā, Masačūsetsā (tagadējā Sautbridžā) 1786. gadā. Viņš absolvēja Brauna universitāti 1808. gadā. Pēc tiesību zinātnes izlasīšanas Mārsija 1811. gadā tika uzņemta Ņujorkas bārā un sāka savu praksi Trojā, Ņujorkā.

1812.

1823. gadā Mersija pārcēlās uz Albāniju, kur divus termiņus pildīja Ņujorkas štata kontroliera pienākumus. 1829. gadā viņš tika iecelts par Ņujorkas Augstākās tiesas asociēto tiesnesi. Pēc diviem Tiesā pavadītiem gadiem Mārsiju no Ņujorkas ievēlēja par ASV senatoru - šo amatu viņš ieņēma līdz ievēlēšanai Ņujorkas gubernatora amatā 1833. gadā.

1840. gadā viņš tika iecelts Meksikas prasību komisijā, kas izskatīja ASV pilsoņu prasības pret Meksiku.

1845. gadā prezidents Džeimss K. Polks lūdza Mersiju ieņemt kara sekretāra amatu - Ministru kabineta amats, kuru viņš ieņēma administrācijas laikā.

1853. gadā prezidents Franklins Pīrss izvēlējās Mersiju par savu valsts sekretāru.


Frenklins Pīrss

Frenklins Pīrss bija ASV četrpadsmitais prezidents no 1853. līdz 1857. gadam. Viņš bija jaunākā persona, kas līdz šim tika ievēlēta par prezidentu. Ziemeļu demokrāts, kurš centās saglabāt dienvidus VERGĪBA, Pīrsa administrācija izrādījās neveiksmīga, jo parakstīja līgumu pret pieaugošo atcelšanas kustību KANSAS-NEBRASKAS AKTS 1854. gadā, kas abām jaunajām teritorijām deva iespēju atļaut verdzību. Pīrss nespēja uzvarēt atkārtotu nominēšanu uz otro termiņu.

Pīrss dzimis 1804. gada 23. novembrī Hilsboro, Ņūhempšīrā. Viņa vecāki bija Bendžamins un Anna Kendrika Pīrsa. Pīrss 1824. gadā pabeidza Bowdoin koledžu un pēc tēva ienākšanas politikā atgriezās mājās, lai pārņemtu sava tēva postmeistara pienākumus. Pīrss studēja jurisprudenci pie vietējā advokāta un tika uzņemts Ņūhempšīras bārā 1827. gadā. Tajā pašā gadā viņa tēvs tika ievēlēts par Ņūhempšīras gubernatoru, kas izrādījās noderīgs paša Pīrsa topošajām politiskajām ambīcijām.

Pīrss tika ievēlēts par demokrātu Ņūhempšīras likumdevējā 1829. gadā un 1832. gadā tika ievēlēts ASV Pārstāvju palātā. Spēcīgs prezidenta atbalstītājs Andrejs Džeksons, Pīrss kļuva saistīts arī ar verdzības cēloni. 1835. gadā viņš uzbruka Parlamentam adresētajiem atcelšanas lūgumu plūdiem, kuros bija vairāk nekā divu miljonu cilvēku paraksti. Viņš pievienojās dienvidu demokrātiem, lai ieviestu "gag noteikumu", kas neļāva Parlamentam saņemt vai apspriest šos lūgumrakstus.

1837. gadā Pīrsu ievēlēja ASV Senātā. 1842. gadā viņš atkāpās no amata personisku iemeslu dēļ un atgriezās Konkordā, Ņūhempšīrā, lai kļūtu par federālā apgabala advokātu. Izņemot īsu ekskursiju armijas virsnieka amatā Meksikas kara laikā (1846 un ndash48), Pīrss palika ārpus politiskās arēnas līdz DEMOKRĀTISKĀ PARTIJA nacionālais kongress 1852. gadā. Trīs vadošie prezidenta amata kandidāti Luiss Kass, STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS, un Džeimss Bučanans, neizdevās iegūt vajadzīgās balsis pēc četrdesmit astoņām biļeteniem. Konvencija četrdesmit devītajā balsojumā pievērsās Pīrsam kā kompromisa kandidātam, kurš, lai arī praktiski nav zināms valsts mērogā, baudīja ziemeļu un dienvidu demokrātu atbalstu. Viņš viegli uzvarēja ģenerāli Vinfīldu Skotu SAGALAS PARTY kandidāts, 1852. gada novembrī.

"A REPUBLIKA BEZ PUSĒM IR PILNĪGA ANOMĀLIJA. TVIŅU VISU POPULĀRO VALDĪBU VĒSTURE Rāda, KĀDS ABSURDS IR VIŅU MĒĢINĀJUMS EST BEZ PUSĒM."
& mdashFRANKLIN LppIERCE

Pīrss stājās amatā 1853. gada martā, laikā, kad verdzības jautājums draudēja sašķelt gan demokrātiskās, gan vigiešu partijas, kā arī pašu tautu. Pīrss centās mazināt spriedzi, ieceļot kabinetu, kurā bija gan dienvidu, gan ziemeļu amatpersonas. Joprojām kritizējot abolicionismu, viņš saniknoja pret verdzību vērsto kustību, parakstot 1854. gada Kanzasas-Nebraskas aktu. Ar šo aktu tika atcelts MISSOURI

1820. gada kompromiss, kas ierobežoja verdzības robežas līdz tādam pašam platumam kā Misūri dienvidu robeža & mdash36 & deg 30 & prime ziemeļu platuma. Jaunās Kanzasas un Nebraskas teritorijas tika organizētas pēc tautas suverenitātes principa, kas ļāva vēlētājiem pašiem noteikt, vai verdzība teritoriju uzņemšanas laikā būs legalizēta institūcija.

Abolicionisti populāro suverenitātes principu uzskatīja par līdzekli verdzības paplašināšanai uz ziemeļiem un rietumiem. Pīrss izrādījās vājš un neizlēmīgs, jo Kanzasā un Nebraskā izcēlās vardarbība. 1856. gada 25. maijā kaujinieciskais abolicionists DŽONS BROUNS vadīja reidu pret verdzības atbalstītājiem Potavatomijas līcā Kanzasā, nogalinot piecas personas. Lai arī Pīrss bija satriekts par šo reidu, viņš neko neteica un maz darīja, lai novērstu pieaugošo vardarbību starp abolicionistiem un verdzības atbalstītājiem, kas drīz vien piešķīra teritorijai nosaukumu “Bleeding Kansas”. Viņa atbalsts verdzībai noveda pie Demokrātu partijas defekcijas un galu galā veicināja verdzības novēršanu REPUBLIKAS PARTY.

Pīrss guva zināmus panākumus ārlietās. 1854. gadā Pīrss saņēma ziņojumu par komondora Metjū C. Perija ekspedīciju Japānā un ziņu, ka ASV kuģiem būs ierobežota piekļuve Japānas ostām. Viņa administrācija 1853. gada Gadsdenas pirkumā par 10 miljoniem ASV dolāru ieguva zemes gabalu pie Meksikas robežas, 1854. gadā vienojās ar Kanādu par zvejas tiesību līgumu un 1856. gadā parakstīja līgumu ar Lielbritāniju, lai atrisinātu strīdus Centrālamerikā.

Tomēr Pīrsa popularitāti sabojāja viņa slepenais mēģinājums nopirkt Kubu no Spānijas. 1854. gada oktobra diplomātiskā paziņojuma publiskā izpaušana ar nosaukumu Ostendes manifests šokēja Kongresu un sabiedrību. Manifestā tika apspriesti veidi, kā ASV varētu iegūt vai anektēt Kubu ar vai bez Spānijas gribas to pārdot. Pīrss bija spiests atteikties no atbildības par plānu, taču viņa integritāte tika apšaubīta.

Demokrātu partija Pīrsu 1856. gadā neatkārtoja, galvenokārt grūtību dēļ ar Kanzasas-Nebraskas likumu un neefektīvo vadību. Partija vērsās pie Džeimsa Buchanana, kurš tika ievēlēts, bet maz darīja, lai atrisinātu politiskās un sekciju domstarpības par verdzību.

Pīrss atkāpās no sabiedriskās dzīves 1857. gadā un atgriezās Konkordā, Ņūhempšīrā, praktizēt

Frenklins Pīrss.
KONGRESA BIBLIOTĒKA

likums. Viņš kļuva par prezidenta skaļu kritiķi ABRAHAMS LINKOLNS pilsoņu kara laikā, tomēr uzbrūkot EMANCIPĀCIJA PROKLAMĒŠANA gada 1863. gadā. Kad 1865. gada aprīlī viņam neizdevās izkārt karogu, sērojot par nogalināto Linkolnu, pūlis uzbruka viņa mājām.

Pīrss nomira Konkordā 1869. gada 8. oktobrī.


Senators un diplomāts

1834. gadā, pēc atgriešanās no Eiropas iepriekšējā gadā, Džeimss Buhanans tika ievēlēts pārstāvēt savu dzimto valsti ASV Senātā. Viņš atkāpās no Senāta 1845. gadā, kad prezidents Džeimss Polks (1795-1849) viņu nosauca par ASV valsts sekretāru. Buchanan ’s šajā amatā, kas ilga līdz 1849. gadam, valsts teritorija pieauga par vairāk nekā vienu trešdaļu un pirmo reizi paplašinājās visā kontinentā. Amerikas Savienotās Valstis aneksēja Teksasu, Meksikas un Amerikas kara laikā ieguva Kaliforniju un lielu daļu mūsdienu dienvidrietumu un nodrošināja to, kas kļūs par Oregonas teritoriju pēc robežu strīda atrisināšanas ar Lielbritāniju.

Jautājums par to, vai verdzību attiecināt uz Ameriku un#x2019 jauniegūtajām teritorijām, kā arī verdzības kā iestādes morālo leģitimitāti, kļuva arvien sašķeltāki visā ASV. 1846. gadā Buchanan nostājās dienvidnieku pusē, kuri veiksmīgi bloķēja Wilmot Proviso, kas ierosināja aizliegt verdzību jebkurā teritorijā, kas iegūta no Meksikas Meksikas un Amerikas karā. Buchanan vēlāk atbalstīja 1850. gada kompromisu - virkni kongresa aktu, kas atzina Kaliforniju par brīvu valsti, bet ļāva jaunajām rietumu teritorijām izlemt, vai tās atļaus verdzību pirms pieteikšanās valstiskumam - jēdziens, kas kļuva pazīstams kā tautas suverenitāte.

1853. gadā prezidents Franklins Pīrss (1804-1869) iecēla Buhananu par Lielbritānijas ministru. Šajā lomā Buchanan palīdzēja izstrādāt 1854. gada Ostendes manifestu - plānu Amerikai iegūt Kubu no Spānijas. Lai gan šis priekšlikums netika īstenots, tas izraisīja protestus no verdzības apkarošanas ziemeļniekiem un citiem ASV, kuri baidījās, ka Kuba kļūs par verdzības valsti.


Viss, kas nepieciešams alvas perforēšanai

Koloniālajā laikmetā perforēta alva atstāja zīmi uz visu, sākot no laternām un beidzot ar skapjiem. Mūsdienās šie sarežģītie metāla dizaini var aizdot mēbelēm un iebūvētām iekārtām unikālu, ar rokām darinātu izskatu-un, par laimi, jums nav nepieciešams sevi apgūt meistaram, lai tās izgatavotu. Lai gan viņš izmanto īpašus darbarīkus un metālus, kurus iztur ar rokām, otrās paaudzes skārdnieks Ričards Lavijs no Keitijas koloniālā apgaismojuma uzstāj, ka ikviens iesācējs var risināt šo procesu tikai ar uzzīmētu rakstu uz papīra, alvas vai vara lapas un āmura un kalts vai naglas. Iedvesmojies personalizēt savus skapjus ar kādu perforētu alvu? Lasiet tālāk par citiem veikalā esošajiem priekšmetiem, kurus Lavy iesaka izveidot paneļus mājās.

Raksts

Izsekojiet savu dizainu (atrodiet iezīmētās opcijas sadaļā Country Accents Punched & amp Pierced Tin) uz papīra lapas tā paneļa izmērā, kuru vēlaties perforēt. Nodrošiniet to ar plānu kartonu, lai nodrošinātu izturību, pēc tam izmantojiet tapas, lai nostiprinātu papīru gan pie metāla, gan pie darba virsmas.

Metāla loksnes

Lavy iesaka pārklāt ar 24 vai 28 gabarītu metālu. Izmēģiniet varu kā siltāku alternatīvu tradicionālajai alvai.

Apmēram 10 USD par 12x18 collu skārda loksni, aptuveni 13 USD par 8x10 collu vara loksni CreateForLess

Nailsets

Lai izveidotu paraugu ar punktiem, izmēģiniet šos Dasco Pro rīkus, kuriem ir apaļi uzgaļi.

Auksti kalti

Svītru štancēšanai izmantojiet ¼ līdz ⅜ collu kalti.

Āmurs

Piesitiet perforatorus metālam ar naga āmuru. Vienam sitienam vajadzētu izdarīt vienu stingru sitienu.

Rawhide Mallet

Kad esat pārnesis savu dizainu uz metālu, apgrieziet to un izmantojiet jēlādas vai gumijas āmuru, lai izlīdzinātu malas un notrulinātu perforatoru asos punktus.

Aptuveni 20 ASV dolāri ir pieejami datortehnikas veikalos

Krūšu spilventiņš

Lai nedaudz sasmalcinātu metālu tā, lai tas labāk pieņemtu vēlamo apdari, viegli berzējiet šo lieljaudas skruberi virs štancētā dizaina.

Aptuveni 3 USD par trim, kas pieejami datortehnikas veikalos

Caurspīdīga laka

Pēc metāla tīrīšanas izsmidziniet to ar šo caurspīdīgo kārtu, lai novērstu rūsas veidošanos. Lai iegūtu novecojušu izskatu, vispirms uzklājiet melnā oksīda apdari (apmēram 45 ASV dolāri Caswell).

15 ASV dolāru saīsne

Lai lēti uzņemtos šo projektu, no datortehnikas veikala nomainiet alvu un varu pret lokšņu metālu. Izmantojiet lielu naglu kā perforatoru, pēc tam "novecojiet" paneli, berzējot to ar plakanu melnu metāla krāsu.


William PIERCE – Ministru kabineta veidotājs un polsterētājs

MĪLĒJOTIES VILIAMA PIERIZA, KURS Nomira 1905. gada 1. maijā, atmiņā. ARĪ MĀRIJA, SIEVA, Nomira 1906. gada 24. februārī.

Viljams Pīrss dzimis aptuveni 1823. gadā Hanmerē, viņa tēvs bija Bendžamins Pīrss, kurš bija kalējs no Vrekshemas, viņa māte bija Anna, kura bija no Rabonas.

Gada 18. Pārim abiem bija viena dzīvesvieta Islington ielā 136.

1850

No tautas skaitīšanas ierakstiem ir atklāts, ka Mērijas Annas māte bija Marija, 1851. gadā viņa dzīvo Mount Street kopā ar savu dēlu Edvardu Evansu, bet viņa bija apprecējusies atkārtoti, un viņas vārds tagad ir Barrott. Kas bija viņas vīrs, nav zināms, jo viņa bija atraitne.

Līdz 1857. gadam Viljams bija sadarbībā ar Edvīnu Ouenu, taču viņi nolēma iet pa dažādiem ceļiem.

PARTNERĪBAS RISINĀŠANA. ŠAJĀ PAZIŅOJUMS, ka līdz šim noslēgtā partnerattiecību noslēgšana starp apakšā parakstījušos, kas nodarbojas ar Ministru kabineta veidotāju un polsterētāju uzņēmējdarbību vai tirdzniecību, vadot firmu “PIERCE AND OWEN un Wrexham, Denbigh apgabalā. ar savstarpēju piekrišanu, 1857. gada 1. janvārī. Visus parādus, kas pienākušies aizgājušajai firmai vai no tās, līdz turpmākam paziņojumam saņems un samaksās Viljams Pīrss, Bridge-Street vai Edvīns Ouvens, Town Hill.

1857. gada 9. janvāris

Edvīns Ouvens turpināja savu biznesu kā skapju izgatavotājs Pilsētas kalnā un kļuva par aģentu tīrīšanas un krāsošanas uzņēmumā no Liverpūles.

Viljams paplašināja savu preču klāstu un 1859. gadā paziņoja, ka tagad krāj paklājus.

PAKLĀJI, PAKLĀJI, PAKLĀTI !! VECĀ DZĪVOTĀ KABINETE UN MĪKSTU MĪKSTU NOLIKTUVU TILTU IELA, WREXHAM. “WILLIAM PIERCE, BEGS ar cieņu informēt Vrekshemas un tās apkārtnes sabiedrību, ka viņš tikko ir papildinājis savu krājumu ar lielu daudzumu Kidderminster, holandiešu, filca un citu paklāju, ko viņš ir gatavs pārdot par zemākajām tirdzniecības cenām, iepriekš iepērkoties. līdz pašreizējam cenu pieaugumam. W. P. vienmēr ir noliktavā, liela izvēle pašmāju skapja mēbelēm un visi citi Tirdzniecības raksti.

1859. gada 1. janvāris

1861. gadā Viljamam klājās labi un viņš nodarbināja 4 strādniekus. Šobrīd viņiem bija 3 bērni, Džeimss Hoplijs 9, Džūlija Anna 4 un Margareta, kura bija 10 mēnešus veca. Viņa tēvs Bendžamins bija kopā ar viņiem, bet viņš nomira nākamajā gadā, būdams 68 gadus vecs. Arī mājā ir pensionēta muitniece Mērija Barro, 1851. gadā viņa bija atraitne, pārtikas preču tirgotāja un pārdevēja Mount Street un dzīvoja kopā ar viņu. dēls Edvards Evanss. Viņa bija Viljama sievasmāte. Nav zināms, kad viņa apprecējās ar Barrot kungu un pat kas viņš bija.

1867. gada jūnijā pilsētā tika atvērts jauns klubs, Viljams piegādāja mēbeles.

PILSĒTAS UN NOVADA KLUBA ATVĒRŠANA. Pirmdien Pilsētas un lauku klubu biedriem atklāja kopsapulce un saruna vakarā. Telpas, kas ņemtas šim nolūkam un pazīstamas kā Hope-street House (vēlā T. C. Jones rezidence), ir visērtākās kluba objektiem gan no to centrālā stāvokļa, gan no iekšējās kārtības. Numuru komplekts, kas tagad ir mēbelēts un atvērts, sastāv no ēdamistabas, lasītavas, bibliotēkas un smēķētāju istabas. Šie numuri ir mēbelēti ar labām vienkāršas, vislabākās kvalitātes un būtiskākā rakstura mēbelēm, ko piegādājis Wm kungs. Pierce, no Bridge-street, un tā izvēle atspoguļo vislielāko atzinību par komitejas labo gaumi.

1868

1869. gadā izskatās, ka Viljams bija diezgan aizkaitināts, kad viņš zaudēja kontaktu ar saviem zārkiem, un viņš uzskatīja, ka tas ir gadījums, kad Hjū Deiviss izmanto savu ietekmi sava dēla labā. Tas ir diezgan garš raksts, bet iznākums bija tāds, ka nekas netika darīts, un vēstulei tika pavēlēts “gulēt uz galda”. Tas nebija populārs daudzu cilvēku lēmums.

SŪDZĪBA PROM VĒLO KONFINENTU UZŅĒMĒJU. PASŪTĪTS GULT UZ GALDA. Sekretārs nolasīja šādu vēstuli no kabineta meistara Pīrsa: VREKŠAMAS SAVIENĪBAS PIRMDIENAM UN AIZSARGIEM. Kungi Pēdējos trīs gadus noslēdzot līgumu un piegādājot zārkus Savienības Vrekshemas rajonam bez nevienas sūdzības, es pēdējā līguma dienā kā parasti nosūtīju savu piedāvājumu, bet esmu informēts, ka Llewelyn Davies of Erddig Road piedāvājums, ir pieņemts. Vai viņš nav šīs pilsētas galdnieks un celtnieks Hjū Deivisa kunga dēls, Abenberija Fečana aizbildnis? un vai viņa tēvs nebija līguma komitejā? un vai viņš neizmantoja savu ietekmi dēla labā? - viņš zina jebkura iepriekšēja līguma summu. Vai arī Llewelyn Davies kungs ir sava uzņēmējdarbības vieta? vai arī viņš strādā par savu putu kā ceļinieks? Ja tas tā ir, viņa tēvs tieši un netieši saņems labumu no līguma, kas ir pretrunā ar Parlamenta likumu un Nabadzīgo likumu padomes rīkojumiem. Man žēl apgrūtināt jūs ar šiem jautājumiem, taču uzskatīju par savu pienākumu to darīt, uzskatot, ka pret mani ir izmantota kāda nepamatota ietekme. Tāpēc jūs mani ārkārtīgi uzliksit par pienākumu, nedaudz izgaismojot šo tēmu. Es esmu, kungi, jūsu cieņā, VILIAMS PIERCE.

1869. gada 9. oktobris

Priekšsēdētājs lūdza līgumus, un, tos izlasot, bija redzams, ka tur, kur Pīrsam bija 17 gadi, Llevelynam Deivisam bija 16, 9d, bet Pīrsam - 13 gadi, kur Llewelyn Davies bija 12, 9d. Priekšsēdētāja vietnieks: Trīs pensi ir ziņkārīgs skaitlis, lai viņi atšķirtos. Priekšsēdētājs Es domāju, ka vienīgais veids ir likt Pierce kungam padomes priekšā iesniegt līdzīgu sūdzību, un mums būs arī Davies kungs, un tad mēs varēsim visu izskatīt.

Viljams palika Bridžstrītā, un līdz 1871. gadam viņam bija vairāk bērnu, dēls Džeimss Hoplijs tagad bija grāmatveža ierēdnis, un viņam bija vēl divas jaunas māsas - Elizabete 5 un Eleonora tikai 7 mēnešus vecas.

Līdz 1891. gadam viņa meita Jūlija Annija bija skolas direktore King Street 1, Margareta, Elizabete un Eleonora bija skolotājas. Tur dzīvoja arī Viljams un Marija.

1891 King Street, Vreksema.

Viņi pārcēlās uz Persija ceļu kopā ar meitu Mārgaretu, Elizabeti un Eleonoru, kuras abas bija skolas guvernantes.

Viljams nomira 1905. gada 1. maijā Percy Road, Marija nomira tur nākamajā gadā 1906. gada 24. februārī.

Viņu dēls Džeimss Hoplejs kļuva par veiksmīgu advokātu un nomira 1926. gadā.

Pētīja Anete Edvardsa. 2019. gada jūlijs

J-02372 J-02372


Pīrsa kabinets - vēsture

& ldquo & hellip Es nekad nepārstāšu atcerēties savu dzimteni ar lepnumu, kā arī pieķeršanos, un ar vēl lielāku lepnumu atcerēšos stabilu, nekvalificētu un dāsnu pārliecību, ko man iemitinājuši tās iedzīvotāji. & rdquo & ndash Frenklins Pīrss


Šī ievērojamā divstāvu karkasa un dēļu māja bija mājvieta Franklinam Pīrsam, ASV 14. prezidentam, no bērnības līdz laulībām 1834. gadā. Viņa pilnvaru laikā izjuka šķietamais 1850. gada kompromisa miers. 1854. gada Kanzasas-Nebraskas likums un no tā izrietošā vardarbība "asiņošanas Kansasā" strauji paātrināja tautas un rsquos virzību uz pilsoņu karu.

Pīrsa & rsquos tēvs Bendžamins 1785. gadā pārcēlās uz Ņūhempšīru no Masačūsetsas un sāka montēt īpašumus, kuru kopējais platums bija vairāki simti hektāru. 1804. gadā, apmēram pēc dēla Franklina un rskosa dzimšanas, viņš uzcēla tagadējo māju. Bendžamins Pīrss bija zemnieks, vietējās milicijas vadītājs un politiķis, kurš vēlāk divus termiņus pildīja gubernatora amatu. Viņš arī darbojās krodziņā mājā, kas kļuva par Hillsborough sociālo centru.

Pierce Homestead ir lielisks Ņūhempšīras ciemata arhitektūras piemērs. Tā ir divstāvu karkasa ēka ar jumta jumtu. Durvju ailes ar paneļiem, kas atrodas skaistās klasiskās priekšējās daļās, izceļ priekšējo un sānu pacēlumu. Sākotnēji interjers sastāvēja no divām istabām abās pusēs no plašas centra kāpņu zāles pirmajā stāvā, un otrajā stāvā papildus parastajām guļamistabām bija liela svinīga deju zāle. Liela daļa trafaretu, kas rotāja lielāko daļu galveno istabu, ir saglabājušies atjaunoti, un oriģinālās franču tapetes, kas attēlo Neapoles līča ainas, joprojām rotā salonu. Interjerā ir krāsa laika un laikmeta mēbeļu spilgtās krāsās. Otrā stāva deju zālē, kur Bendžamins Pīrss apmācīja apgabala miliciju, tagad ir izliekts galds, ko štata likumdevējs izmantoja, kad runātājs bija Franklins Pīrss.


Pēc dienesta Meksikas karā Pīrss turpināja aktīvi piedalīties valsts politikā, iebilstot pret likvidācijas kustību, kas, viņaprāt, šķīra valsti, un atbalstīja 1850. gada kompromisu. Kad demokrāti tikās, lai izvēlētos savu kandidātu 1852. gada prezidenta vēlēšanās, partija pietiekami viegli vienojās par platformu, kas apņēmās neatlaidīgi atbalstīt 1850. gada kompromisu un naidīgumu pret jebkādiem centieniem rosināt verdzības jautājumu. Tomēr viņi balsoja 48 reizes un izslēdza visus labi zināmos kandidātus, pirms izvirzīja Pīrsu, patiesu & ldquodarkhorse & rdquo kandidātu. Viņš uzvarēja vēlēšanās ar lielu pārsvaru, taču triumfu traucēja traģēdija. Neilgi pirms stāšanās amatā Pīrss un viņa ģimene atradās vilciena avārijā, bet vecāki izdzīvoja, bet viņu pēdējais dzīvais bērns, 11 gadus vecs dēls, nomira negadījumā. Pīrss prezidenta amatā stājās skumju un nervu izsīkuma stāvoklī, un viņa sieva nevarēja ierasties inaugurācijā.

Tieši 1854. gada Kanzasas-Nebraskas likums, kuru prezidents Pīrss enerģiski popularizēja, pārtrauca 1850. gada kompromisa pagaidu pamieru un pacēla sekciju kaislības jaunā līmenī. Pasākums sadalīja salīdzinoši nesakārtoto Luiziānas iepirkuma centrālo daļu Kanzasas un Nebraskas teritorijās. Tas paredzēja, ka kolonisti jaunajās teritorijās savu lēmumu par verdzību izlemj ar tautas balsojumu. Protesta vētra sveica kompromisu ziemeļos, jo tas faktiski atcēla Misūri kompromisu, atļaujot verdzību apgabalos, kuros kopš 1820. gada aizliegts būt vergiem. Pīrss cerēja uz Kanzasas uzņemšanu Savienībā kā verdzības valsti un Nebrasku kā brīvu valsti. , tādējādi mīkstinot abas puses. Neviens nešaubījās, ka Nebraska būs brīva valsts, bet verdzību atbalstoši un pret kolonisti iebrauca Kanzasā, cerot ietekmēt iznākumu. Drīz vien sākās sporādisks partizānu karš kopā ar bieži krāpnieciski izlemtām un vardarbīgi apstrīdētām vēlēšanām. Konfrontācija vainagojās ar Džona Brauna un rsquos nežēlīgo piecu verdzību atbalstošu vīriešu slepkavību netālu no Potavatomijas līča. Tauta pavirzījās vēl vienu soli tuvāk pilsoņu karam.

Pīrss radīja īslaicīgu mieru, kad 1856. gada beigās viņš nosūtīja federālos karaspēkus Kanzasas apgabalā un iecēla jaunu gubernatoru, taču jau bija nodarīts pārāk liels kaitējums. Daudzi pret verdzību vērsti vīri pameta Demokrātisko partiju, izveidojot jaunu ziemeļu partiju - republikāņus, īpaši iebilstot pret verdzības paplašināšanu. Demokrātu konvents noraidīja Pīrsu un izvirzīja mazāk strīdīgo Džeimsu Bukananu.

Pīrss atgriezās Ņūhempšīrā rūgts cilvēks, joprojām būdams pārliecināts, ka viņa politika ir pareiza. Pilsoņu kara laikā viņa nosodījums par emancipācijas pasludināšanu un atklāta kritika par Linkolna politiku izraisīja viņam nosodījumu viņa paša štatā un kopienā. Tas kopā ar sliktu veselību, viņa sievas nāvi 1863. gadā un viņa mūža draugu, autoru Natanielu Hawthorne 1864. gadā izraisīja dziļu depresiju. Frenklins Pīrss nomira 1869. gadā 64 gadu vecumā Konkordā. Tur viņš tika apglabāts Vecajos Ziemeļu kapos.

Sēta palika Pīrsu ģimenē līdz 1925. gadam, kad Ņūhempšīras štats to ieguva. Laikā no 1945. līdz 1950. gadam Ņūhempšīras Sieviešu un rsquos klubu federācija palīdzēja to atjaunot, un vēlāk valsts veica īpašumā papildu darbus. Šodien Hillsborough vēsturiskā biedrība pārvalda māju kā muzeju.

Franklina Pīrsa sēta, kas atrodas Rte. 31 aptuveni 100 jardus uz ziemeļiem no tās krustojuma ar Rte. 9 netālu no Hillsborough, NH, ir valsts vēsturiskais orientieris. Noklikšķiniet šeit, lai iegūtu Nacionālā vēsturiskā pieminekļa reģistrācijas failu: tekstu un fotoattēlus.

Franklina Pīrsa sēta ir atvērta sestdienās un svētdienās no pulksten 10:00 līdz 16:00 no piemiņas dienas līdz 30. jūnijam. no darba dienas nedēļas nogales līdz Kolumba dienas nedēļas nogalei. Pēc Kolumbusas nedēļas nogales sēta tiek slēgta ziemas mēnešos. Pēdējā ekskursija katru dienu sākas pulksten 15:15. Par ekskursiju pa māju tiek iekasēta ieejas maksa. Lai iegūtu vairāk informācijas, apmeklējiet Ņūhempšīras štata parka Franklin Pierce Homestead vietni vai zvaniet pa tālruni 603-271-3556. Apmeklējiet Hillsborough vēstures biedrības Franklin Pierce Homestead vietni vai zvaniet pa tālruni 603-464-3637, lai iegūtu papildu informāciju vai zvaniet.

Franklina Pīrsa sēta ir dokumentēta Nacionālā parka dienesta vēsturisko amerikāņu ēku apsekojumā.


6 Zinātniskie skaidrojumi spokiem

Pārsteidzoši daudz cilvēku tic spokiem. Šapmena universitātes 2017. gada aptauja atklāja, ka 52 procenti amerikāņu uzskata, ka garus var vajāt vietas, kas ir par aptuveni 11 procentiem vairāk nekā 2015. gadā. Iepriekšējā Apvienotās Karalistes aptaujā atklājās, ka 52 procenti dalībnieku ticēja pārdabiskajam. Bet var būt zinātniskāks pamatojums lietām, kas naktī sabrūk, nekā nemierīga pēcnāves dzīve.

Šeit ir seši loģiski skaidrojumi šai spokainai klātbūtnei jūsu mājā.

1. ELEKTROMAGNĒTISKIE LAUKI

Kanādiešu neirozinātnieks vārdā Maikls Persingers gadu desmitiem ir pētījis elektromagnētisko lauku ietekmi uz cilvēku uztveri par spokiem, izvirzot hipotēzi, ka pulsējoši magnētiskie lauki, kas apziņā nemanāmi, var likt cilvēkiem justies tā, it kā telpā būtu “klātbūtne”. kopā ar viņiem, izraisot neparastus darbības modeļus smadzeņu laika daivās. Persingers ir pētījis cilvēkus savā laboratorijā, kas valkā tā saukto “Dieva ķiveri”, atklājot, ka daži vāju magnētisko lauku modeļi virs kāda cilvēka galvas 15 līdz 30 minūtes var radīt priekšstatu, ka telpā ir neredzama klātbūtne.

Daži turpmāki pētījumi ir atkāpušies no šīs teorijas, apgalvojot, ka cilvēki reaģēja uz ierosinājumu, ka viņi jutīsies spocīgi, nevis uz elektromagnētisko lauku. Tomēr Persingers iebilst, ka šis eksperiments notika pēc ļoti atšķirīgiem protokoliem nekā viņa paša pētījums [PDF]. Citi zinātnieki ir arī atklājuši, ka vidēs, kurās ir spoku reputācija, bieži ir neparasti magnētiskie lauki.

2. INFRASOUND

Infraskaņa ir skaņa tik zemā līmenī, ka cilvēki to nedzird (lai gan citi dzīvnieki, piemēram, ziloņi, to dzird). Zemfrekvences vibrācijas var radīt izteiktu fizioloģisku diskomfortu. Zinātnieki, kas pēta vēja turbīnu un satiksmes trokšņa ietekmi dzīvojamo māju tuvumā, ir noskaidrojuši, ka zemfrekvences troksnis var izraisīt dezorientāciju [PDF], panikas sajūtu, sirdsdarbības ātruma un asinsspiediena izmaiņas un citus efektus, ko varētu viegli saistīt ar spoks [PDF]. Piemēram, 1998. gada rakstā par dabiskiem vajāšanas cēloņiem [PDF] inženieris Viks Tandijs apraksta darbu medicīnas iekārtu ražotājā, kura laboratorijās, kā ziņots, bija spoku telpa. Ikreiz, kad Tandijs strādāja šajā laboratorijā, viņš jutās nomākts un neērti, bieži dzirdēja un redzēja dīvainas lietas, ieskaitot parādīšanos, kas noteikti izskatījās kā spoks. Galu galā viņš atklāja, ka telpā atrodas 19 Hz stāvošs vilnis, kas nāk no ventilatora, kas raida nedzirdīgas vibrācijas, kas izraisīja dezorientējošus efektus. Turpmākie pētījumi arī parāda saikni starp infraskaņu un dīvainām sajūtām, piemēram, drebuļiem mugurkaulā vai nemiera sajūtu.

3. PELĒT

Šeins Rodžerss, Klarksona universitātes inženierzinātņu profesors, pēdējos mēnešus ir pavadījis, apceļojot vajāšanas vietas, meklējot ne pārāk paranormālas aktivitātes: pelējuma augšanu. Sākotnējie pētījumi liecina, ka dažas pelējuma formas var izraisīt simptomus, kas izklausās diezgan spocīgi, piemēram, neracionālas bailes un demenci. "Esmu skatījies daudz spoku šovu," viņš stāsta Mental Floss. Viņš sāka brīnīties, “vai tur ir kāda saikne, kur mēs varētu izskaidrot, kāpēc cilvēkiem rodas šīs jūtas”. Līdz šim datu vākšanas procesā "ir grūti pateikt, vai tas ir veicinošs faktors vai nē, bet anekdotiski mēs redzam, ka šīs [toksiskās veidnes] pastāv vietās, kuras vajā," saka Rodžerss.

4. OGLEKĻA MONOKSĪDA SAINDĒŠANĀS

1921. gadā ārsts vārdā W.H. Vilmers publicēja nepāra stāstu par spoku māju American Journal of Ophthalmology. Ģimene, kas dzīvoja šajā spokotajā rezidencē, medicīniskajā literatūrā dēvēta par H ģimeni, sāka izjust dīvainas parādības, kad viņi pārcēlās uz veco māju - dzirdēja mēbeļu pārvietošanos un dīvainas balsis naktī, sajūtot neredzamu rēgu klātbūtni. Viņi ziņo, ka spoki viņus tur gultā, jūtas vāji un daudz ko citu. Kā izrādījās, nepareiza krāsns piepildīja viņu māju ar oglekļa monoksīdu, izraisot skaņas un redzes halucinācijas. Krāsns tika salabota, un H ģimene atgriezās savā dzīvē, bez spoki.

5. CITS CITS TEICA, KA IR ĪSTS.

2014. gada pētījumā Goldsmiths, Londonas Universitātes psihologi lika dalībniekiem noskatīties video, kurā redzams, kā “ekstrasenss” ar prātu liek liek metāla atslēgu. Vienā stāvoklī pētāmie skatījās videoklipu kopā ar “dalībnieku”, kurš faktiski strādāja ar pētniekiem un apgalvoja, ka redz atslēgu. Šie subjekti, visticamāk, ziņoja, ka redzēja atslēgas saliekšanos, nekā subjekti, kuri bija pārī ar kādu, kurš apgalvoja, ka atslēga nav saliekusies vai neko neteica. “Viena cilvēka pārskats var ietekmēt citas personas atmiņu,” pētījuma līdzautors Kristofers Francs stāsta Mental Floss. Ja kāds cits pārliecinoši apgalvo, ka ir redzējis spoku, tas var ietekmēt aculiecinieku līdzcilvēku uzskatīt, ka viņš to ir redzējis.

6. GRIBAM TICĒT.

"Ticībai spokiem ir motivējoša puse," skaidro francūzis. "Mēs visi vēlamies ticēt dzīvei pēc nāves. Ideja par mūsu mirstību ir tāda, ar kuru mēs parasti neesam apmierināti." Apstiprinājuma aizspriedumi spēcīgi ietekmē mūsu uztveri. "Mums ir daudz vieglāk ticēt pierādījumiem tam, kam mēs tik un tā gribam ticēt," viņš saka.


HistoryLink.org

Mēbeļu ražošana bija Tacomas galvenā nozare gandrīz gadsimtu. Deviņpadsmitā gadsimta beigās liela daļa Pīrsas apgabala pilsētas ekonomikas tika uzcelta uz kokmateriālu rūpniecību. Pārstrādātu koksnes materiālu pieejamība, kas saistīta ar pieaugošo reģionālo pieprasījumu pēc gataviem izstrādājumiem un piekļuve gan dzelzceļa, gan jūras transportam, noveda pie Tacoma kā mēbeļu ražošanas centra attīstības. Gadu desmitiem ilgi nāca un aizgāja daudzas nozīmīgas mēbeļu rūpnīcas, padarot Tacoma par lielāko mēbeļu ražošanas centru uz rietumiem no Misisipi upes. Tomēr divdesmitā gadsimta beigās ārpakalpojumi, imports un deindustrializācija noveda pie Tacoma mēbeļu ražošanas nozares lejupslīdes. Pēdējos gados amatnieku atgriešanās pie maza mēroga pasūtījuma ražošanas atkārto nozares agrīnās dienas.

Amerikāņu apmetnes pirmajos gados Vašingtonā cilvēki mēbeles iegādājās trīs galvenajos veidos: viņi atveda mēbeles, uzbūvēja paši vai pasūtīja no ASV austrumiem. Līdz 1850. gadu beigām apkārtnes kokapstrādes darbinieki darbojās ar maza mēroga uzņēmumiem, kas pēc pasūtījuma izgatavoja mēbeles, taču ražošanā bija maz. Viens no pirmajiem Puget Sound ražotājiem bija T. B. Spīks, kurš 1860. gados Tumwater ūdenskritumā netālu no Olimpijas nodibināja krēslu izgatavošanas biznesu. Kamēr rūpnīca bija īslaicīga, tās vienkāršie dībeļu krēsli agrīnās dienās bija sastopami Vašingtonas rietumos, un daudzi joprojām izdzīvo muzejos.

Vairāki faktori noveda pie tā, ka Tacoma kļuva par mēbeļu ražošanas centru. Kad apkārt Puget Sound sāka darboties vairāk kokmateriālu rūpnīcas, izveidojās palīgdarbības, piemēram, ēvelēšanas dzirnavas, lai pārstrādātu neapstrādātus koksnes izstrādājumus par pārdodamām precēm. Ēvelēto zāģmateriālu pieejamība bija galvenais sasniegums, kas ļāva koka mēbeļu ražošanai šajā reģionā. Finally, the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway at Commencement Bay in 1873 made New Tacoma (as the railroad called the town it built a short distance south of the existing small settlement of Tacoma) a hub of shipping activity for raw materials and manufactured goods.

To fend off land speculators, the Tacoma Land Company, a subsidiary of the Northern Pacific, sold land only to those who intended to develop it and required buyers to submit their plans for approval. From the 1870s to the early 1900s the Tacoma Land Company steered industrial development to the area near its wharf, along Pacific Avenue from 15th Street southward, paralleling what later became the Thea Foss Waterway. A sawmill and foundry were among the first to locate in the area, as well as warehouses and wholesale businesses to distribute incoming goods.

The earliest furniture manufacturer in the Tacoma area was Gustave G. Bresemann (1845-1937), who immigrated from Prussia in 1869 and arrived in Pierce County by 1870 at age 25. A carpenter and woodworker by trade, Bresemann acquired the Byrd Sawmill at Steilacoom Lake in 1871. Bresemann, with partner August Burow (1837-1906), soon began making furniture, the first such factory in Pierce County. By 1876 Bresemann relocated to Spanaway Lake, building a new water-powered sawmill and continuing his furniture-making business. Bresemann Forest on the north shore of Spanaway Lake is named for him.

In Tacoma, David S. Lister Sr. (1821-1891) established a foundry in 1876 and added furniture manufacturing to his business soon after. By 1881 the growing furniture operation was run by Frederick Bauerle (1841-1926) in partnership with John A. Muller (1843-1926) and known as the Tacoma Furniture Factory. This factory changed hands in 1883, bought by James Chamberlain and Stuart Rice (1858-1938). Among the more refined pieces it produced was a roll-top desk. By 1885 the factory employed 40 workers.

After selling his first factory, Bauerle founded Bauerle and Klee with Joseph Klee (1845-1927) in 1888. In 1889 Gustave Bresemann sold his factory at Spanaway Lake and began a partnership with Klee, buying out Bauerle in a new factory at 25th and H streets in Tacoma. Bresemann managed operations until his retirement in 1902 the factory operated until at least 1906.

The story of furniture making in Tacoma is complex due to the shifting demands of markets and the overlap of skill sets and equipment with other industries such as residential millwork, cabinet making, boat building, and commercial-fixture manufacturing. As demand increased, businesses in these industries sometimes added furniture to their product lines and, just as quickly, ended production when demand waned. Because of this, there were many furniture manufacturers in Tacoma that lasted only a short time. But a number of larger companies endured for decades, some for more than a century.

Among the city's earliest large furniture concerns was F. S. Harmon and Company, organized by Fremont Smith Harmon (1856-1936) in 1882. Harmon arrived in Tacoma from Wisconsin in 1882 with experience in furniture sales. Initially he partnered with Alexander Parker (1826-1901) in Parker's existing retail business. Harmon bought Parker out after a fire destroyed their store in 1884. Afterward he transitioned to wholesale furniture supply. To keep up with demand F. S. Harmon and Company purchased the Tacoma Furniture Factory in 1889. Harmon became a leading mattress and furniture supplier throughout the Pacific Northwest, opening branches in Portland in 1904 and Seattle and Spokane in 1909. Also in 1909, construction of the Northern Pacific's new Union Station displaced Harmon's factory. He built a substantial new factory and warehouse across the street at 1938 Pacific Avenue, signaling the firm's importance in the city's and the region's economy.

Another new arrival was Joseph L. Carman (1861-1938), who came to Tacoma in 1889 from Des Moines, Iowa, specifically to found a mattress company. He purchased the recently organized L. S. Wood and Company and began the Pacific Lounge and Mattress Company in 1891 with partners L. S. Wood and Fred J. Kelly. It was the first mattress factory in Washington. By 1895 Carman built a new four-story plant at 25th Street and McKinley Avenue despite a nationwide economic downturn. In 1903 Pacific Lounge and Mattress became Carman Manufacturing, Inc.

Tacoma's furniture-manufacturing concerns went through a prolonged growth period prior to World War I. Among the new concerns were the West Coast Chair Company, established in 1904 the Northwest Chair Company, established 1914 and the Kronlund Furniture and Manufacturing Company, established in 1917. Kronlund became Restmore in 1928. Restmore is notable for its patented innerspring mattress design, which it later sold to Simmons Manufacturing Company of Kenosha, Wisconsin.

A recent arrival from New York, George W. Slyter (1862-1946), began the Washington Parlor Furniture Company in 1905. This concern grew rapidly enough to need larger quarters by 1909 when it built a new 75,000-square-foot plant on 11th Street. It produced mainly upholstered living-room furniture along with furnishings for lodges and churches.

One of Tacoma's largest furniture concerns began in 1916 when Edwin Gregory (1862-1937) organized Gregory Furniture Manufacturing Company. Gregory was born in New York and apprenticed as a cabinet maker. He opened his first shop in his home state but lost it to a fire and decided to begin again on the West Coast. In 1889 he arrived in Tacoma and opened Standard House Furniture, a retail business that operated until 1920. The Gregory factory at 2126 S Steele Street, adjacent to the Northern Pacific tracks, was originally built in 1908 for the Willamette Casket Company. By the 1920s Gregory's output was primarily walnut, oak, and mahogany dining- and living-room furnishings, with sales spanning the United States.

By the end of World War I, news articles declared Tacoma the leading manufacturer of furniture on the West Coast, out-producing larger cities including Seattle, Portland, and San Francisco. By then, the industrial area had expanded, first to the east along 25th and 26th streets, and then southwest toward South Tacoma along the Northern Pacific right of way. In addition, dredging and filling in the Puyallup River estuary expanded the industrial area east of downtown. In each of these areas, furniture manufacturers intermingled with other wood-products industries, including barrel makers, architectural millworks, and cabinet manufacturers.

However, a postwar economic slump led to a contraction in the furniture market. Despite the downturn, there was enough demand for home furnishings to prompt some new entries into the field. In 1924 the long-established Buffelen Mill diversified into furniture manufacturing. Dutch immigrant John J. Buffelen (1864-1941) had arrived in Tacoma in 1901 and went into business making decorative porch columns for residential construction. In 1913 another mill came up for sale on Tacoma's tide flats Buffelen purchased it and established the Buffelen Lumber and Manufacturing Company, producing doors, moldings, and decorative veneers before also moving into furniture making.

A major shift in the local industry was the restructuring of F. S. Harmon and Company in the late 1930s. As Fremont Harmon's health declined, his family decided to sell off the furniture-manufacturing arm of the business. It was purchased by Alan T. Crutcher (1884-1947) and Joseph H. Kitlar (1903-1988) who planned to expand its furniture-production division. In 1936 Harmon died, and Crutcher and Kitlar acquired the remainder of the company. For the moment its bread and butter remained mattresses made under franchise from Serta Sleeper Associates of Chicago. It employed 300 workers, making it the second-largest mattress manufacturer in the West. However, it quietly began its move toward expanding its output of home furnishings.

Homefront World War II

As the United States edged toward entry into World War II, Tacoma's proximity to major military facilities at Fort Lewis and the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard positioned its industries to play a significant role in the war effort. In 1941, Tacoma's furniture manufacturers had a combined $1 million payroll with more than 1,200 workers in 20 different plants. After the U.S. entered the conflict at the end of that year, furniture factories in Tacoma supplied pieces for bases across the country, in Europe, and around the Pacific Rim.

Nationwide, the demographics of workers changed as draft-age white men left manufacturing jobs to join the military, women, minorities, and older workers filled the gap. One high-profile example was the Junior Line Furniture Company. Founded in Seattle in 1922, Junior Line made cribs, bassinets, and related items. In 1941 a major fire destroyed its factory, prompting the company's relocation to Tacoma when it was unable to find new quarters in Seattle. Production resumed in Junior Line's new location at 1017 East D Street with a nearly all-woman workforce of 25. By late 1942 owner-manager Clifford C. Collins (1903-1984) extolled the advantages of women workers, noting their eagerness to learn and listen and that they "never make the same mistake twice" ("Tacoma Plant Running . ").

Other Tacoma manufacturers took on defense contracts in addition to furniture making. F. S. Harmon added fabrication of aluminum seat frames for Boeing aircraft and metal bunk beds for the army. Buffelen also produced seats for Boeing. By 1943 the Northwest Chair Company, the largest chair manufacturer in the West, made wooden bodies for military supply trucks used in Europe and the Pacific. Like Junior Line, Northwest Chair also employed many women in all parts of production, including installing truck bodies. In an interview one manager said, "The man who says women are not naturally mechanically inclined is as out of date as a moustache cup" (Simmons, "First of Wooden Truck Bodies . "). By 1944 Northwest Chair made 45 different wooden parts for use in Boeing B-17 and B-29 bombers.

"Grand Rapids of the West"

After the war, service men and women returned to an economy much improved since the 1930s. In 1945 local newspapers reported that the finished-wood-products trades in Tacoma, including furniture manufacturing, supported 1,880 workers. By 1946, 17 furniture factories turned out a diverse array of products made of wood, metal, and plastic. Tacoma's furniture manufacturers were optimistic that the new postwar affluence would translate into increased sales as families bought homes. Industry advocates attributed Tacoma's continued dominance of the region's furniture industry to its long history of abundant raw materials, ease of shipping, and inexpensive water and power utilities. By the late 1940s industry leaders called Tacoma "The Grand Rapids of the West," tying its image in the minds of investors to the Michigan city's famous late-nineteenth-century furniture boom.

Expansion of F. S. Harmon and Company's wood-furnishing division took a major step in late 1945 when Harmon purchased the Gregory Furniture Manufacturing plant. As Gregory's sales waned it downsized, relocating to new quarters at 3321 S Union Avenue and resuming production as the Gregory-Butler Furniture Manufacturing Company. Gregory-Butler's new building featured a modern production line and focused on smaller production runs of high-quality solid wood home furnishings.

Harmon's wood-products production relocated from its Pacific Avenue site to the former Gregory plant, allowing expansion of the mattress-manufacturing division at 1953 South C Street. By 1950 Harmon was the second-largest manufacturer in America and specialized in medium price-range bedroom suites and wood dining-room sets. To address changing tastes, it also added production of chrome and laminate dinettes under a franchise from the Virginia House brand.

Harmon also acquired a long-established local manufacturer, the Northwestern Woodenware Company, a producer of wooden butter tubs and shipping barrels in Tacoma since 1902. Competition from new paper and cardboard packaging made Northwestern Woodenware's original business obsolete. In 1945 new managers retooled its factory at 1933 Dock Street for production of unfinished fir furniture including benches, tables, light bookcases, and other items. Harmon bought the factory in 1948 to add a line of lower-priced products to its offerings.

From 1946 into the 1950s, Junior Line retained its majority-female workforce. As other companies pressured wartime hires to "make way" for family men, the press questioned manager Cliff Collins on his decision to continue employing women. Collins maintained women were preferential to men, stating, "For the most part we've found women to be steadier workers, more dependable, neater, and (of all things), less temperamental" ("Boss Likes Gals' Work") Collins also noted that some of his female hires supported spouses who were veterans with disabilities from their wartime service.

As business grew, production increased along with the number of products Junior Line offered, including high chairs, playpens, and changing dressers. In 1952 Junior Line added to its holdings a sawmill located in the Cascade foothills, to provide a committed supply of wood. At the height of its business in 1957, Junior Line employed 100 workers and produced 2,500 items per week.

Small-scale mattress manufacturer Restmore also benefitted from the postwar economic boom. By 1945 it too needed larger quarters and relocated to 1541 Market Street. While it only employed seven workers, its reputation for high-quality mattresses ensured a steady clientele.

Despite the strong economy, West Coast Chair at 702 E 26th Street suffered from management issues, outdated production processes, and changing tastes. By 1952 it faced closure, and local business leaders from other furniture manufacturers intervened to preserve the company. Through their help, West Coast Chair secured a contract with Tacoma Schools to supply 6,300 desks, saving 40 jobs. Meanwhile, local competitor Northwest Chair Company emerged from the war with a plan for the future. Its wartime contracts added molded plywood to its manufacturing capabilities, which it repurposed for civilian furniture products. Among the items produced at Northwest Chair were chairs for grade schools, dropleaf tables, and matched dinette sets. Veneered plywood was the material it used in new lines of modern living room furniture, and a steam wood bender, the only one on the West Coast, enabled the manufacture of designs in demand in the 1950s. By 1956 Northwest Chair products were available in more than 1,500 retail outlets.

George W. Slyter and Sons, formerly the Washington Parlor Furniture Company, also went through a postwar expansion, building a new facility at 3110 S Cedar Street. Its main output evolved into "occasional chairs" for use throughout the home. Slyter also expanded its sales range to the Midwest, producing 25,000 upholstered chairs with 60 employees in 1951.

New Entries in the Field

Joining the longstanding companies, new manufacturers entered the field in the 1940s and 1950s. New materials and production techniques spawned companies that put the skills of experienced furniture craftspeople to new purposes. For example, the advent of supermarkets in the 1940s and 1950s created demand for shelving and checkout stations. In 1945 William Sutherlan began Sutherlan Store Engineering and Fixture Company at 4540 S Adams Street. Using readily available plywood, laminate, and plastic finishes, Sutherlan produced fixtures for stores throughout the West, employing more than 140 workers by 1954.

Another manufacturer that followed a similar model was Educators Manufacturing Company, which began as a wholesale distributor in 1948. The nationwide increase in school-age children and rapid expansion in school construction created a demand for standardized modular fixtures for classrooms. In 1951 Educators acquired a small Tacoma startup called Furniture Arts Inc., formed in 1950 as a worker-owned cooperative and began producing plywood custom cabinetry for schools. By 1957 the company outgrew its factory at 725 East 25th Street and built a new manufacturing facility near the Port of Tacoma. The new plant opened in 1958 and expanded in 1962. By then, Educators supplied classroom fixtures throughout the country.

Tacoma's pioneer mattress manufacturer, Carman Manufacturing Company, also grew in the postwar era. Over the years Carman added other products to its line including early-American-style bedroom and dining-room furniture as well as china cabinets. Carman sold its furniture division to Furniture Arts in 1950, and then expanded its Spring Air mattress-production line, consolidating its Seattle and Tacoma operations.

Buffelen Furniture entered the postwar era making high-end furniture. Despite its woodworking origins, the Buffelen factory began outsourcing its frame construction to other manufacturers in town, dedicating its factory to turning out upholstered products. However, by 1955 sales were in steep decline due to changing tastes. When Buffelen's shareholders decided to sell out, its workers came together to buy the company and continue operation as a co-op. Over time Buffelen modified its product lines to become financially stable.

Among the more substantial firms that launched in this period was Hamilton Manufacturing Company, later National Church Furniture Company. Retired General W. B. Hamilton (1898-1995) agreed to head a committee to acquire new furnishings for his church. When he discovered there were few options for suppliers, he led an investment group that started its own and opened shop at 1515 South Tacoma Way. Early clients included Tacoma's Annie Wright Schools, county and federal courts, and Whitworth College.

In addition, a number of smaller startups also came into being in this era, to take advantage of the manufacturing boom. Blancher Kay was one such startup, manufacturing occasional tables for a time in the late 1940s. Far West Furniture Company began in 1946 as a co-op with seven employee co-owners building unfinished frames sold to other manufacturers. They also built commercial fixtures for restaurants including the Poodle Dog in Fife and the Olympus Hotel. Another firm, Durobilt Furniture and Upholstery Company, began in 1950 reconditioning old-fashioned "overstuffed" home furnishings. By 1960 it relocated to the former home of the Reliance Lumber company at 323 Puyallup Avenue.

Changing Fortunes

Multiple factors led to a decline in Tacoma's furniture industry by the late twentieth century. The city's expanding role as a major import hub and the advent of containerized shipping at the Port of Tacoma in 1970 were part of America's larger shift toward outsourcing manufacturing overseas. As the flush economic times of the 1940s and 1950s transitioned toward economic recession and deindustrialization, the public's taste in furnishings reflected a desire to economize where possible. Inexpensive imports sold in chain retail outlets began replacing more durable furnishings that earlier consumers had purchased as family heirlooms to be passed down to descendants.

Rising energy and lumber prices also impacted Tacoma's furniture industry as they did other fields. Shipping costs climbed during the oil shortages of the 1970s and raw materials became increasingly scarce. Not only were old-growth forests becoming depleted from decades of cutting, new regulations protecting existing stands on public lands further limited local supplies of furniture-grade lumber.

Finally, greater acceptance by consumers of products made of other materials, such as steel, aluminum, engineered wood products (particle board), and plastics caused a decrease in demand for refined "classic" wood furniture. While some of Tacoma's manufacturers made forays into manufacturing using new materials, manufacturers outside the United States also had easy access to these materials, negating Tacoma's early advantage in access to resources.

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s these forces led to downsizing, business closures, and consolidations, dissipating Tacoma's former leadership as a furniture-manufacturing center. The larger plants including Harmon and Carman downsized as demand fell. Harmon eventually refocused its production on custom office furniture. In the 1990s Carman moved its factory to Thurston County to reduce costs and focus on its most profitable lines. Others, such as National Church Furnishings, also moved away from Tacoma in pursuit of lower labor and land costs.

Junior Line's fate was typical of the trends toward consolidation and downsizing. By 1969 it was purchased by Los Angeles based Nathan Goldman Company and folded into that larger firm. Magnuson Furniture of Kent in south King County bought Slyter Chair, Inc., which continued until 1993 when it closed due to inability to compete with imports. Declining demand also prompted Buffelen to return to its roots as a custom door manufacturer. Educators Manufacturing became part of E. F. Hauserman Company of Cleveland, Ohio. By 1989 Hauserman was no longer in business.

While large-scale manufacturing waned, smaller firms filled the small ongoing demand for locally produced custom furniture, mirroring furniture production in Washington's early days. One example was Restmore Mattress, originally established in 1917. In 1977 Bob Sinclair, grandson of founder Ted Kronlund (1884-1956), purchased the struggling company and returned it to its roots, producing high-end custom mattresses. By 1997 its five employees produced only 3,000 units per year and reupholstering heirloom furniture accounted for 30 percent of business. Another firm, Custom Craft Fixtures, Inc., began in the 1950s producing medium-range products. Its transition to premium furniture for residences and commercial customers also helped it avoid competition from imports.

Legacy Persists

By the second decade of the twenty-first century, furniture making in Tacoma was mainly done by smaller custom builders with few employees. To give a boost to these small concerns and other artisans, Spaceworks, an organization launched in 2010, began helping craftspeople occupy underutilized spaces in Tacoma. In 2015 Rick Semple and Jori Adkins loaned Spaceworks the former Durobilt factory at 323 Puyallup Avenue that they had renovated to house custom furniture makers. Tenants included RePly, making tables, stools, and boxes from salvaged plywood Wane and Flitch, manufacturing woodslab tables and benches and Birdloft, rehabilitating mid-century upholstered furniture.

Tacoma's years as a major furniture-manufacturing center supported thousands of family-wage jobs and contributed significantly to the city's economic development. The confluence of abundant raw materials and power, ease of shipping, and a community of skilled woodworkers enabled Tacoma's furniture industry to flourish. While large-scale production of furniture in Tacoma has all but vanished in recent decades, a legacy of fine-furniture making persists on a smaller scale. In addition, many of the substantial buildings that formerly housed Tacoma's furniture-making giants now serve as homes to a new generation of businesses and organizations. The former Harmon buildings on Pacific Avenue are now the center of the University of Washington's Tacoma campus. As these buildings find new purpose as centers of business and social life, they continue to remind us of Tacoma's deep roots as an important center of America's furniture industry.

Buffelen Furniture, 1912 Center Street, Tacoma, Tacoma Daily Ledger, July 21, 1940

Fremont Smith Harmon (1856-1936), ca. 1882, History of Pierce County, Washington, Sēj. III (Chicago: Pioneer Historical Pub. Co., 1927)

Pacific Lounge and Mattress Co. (drawing by Edward Lange, ca. 1899), Tacoma News Tribune, June 23, 1964

Carman Manufacturing Company, Tacoma, ca. 1907. gads

Courtesy Washington Historical Society (2004.96.11)

John Buffelen (1864-1941), ca. 1927, History of Pierce County, Washington, Sēj. III (Chicago: Pioneer Historical Pub. Co., 1927)

Idabell Bidwell with airplane seat, F. S. Harmon Manufacturing Co., Tacoma News Tribune, February 20, 1941

Hand-weaving seats at Northwest Chair, Tacoma News Tribune, September 1, 1958


Washington’s Presidency – His Cabinet Problems

Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton were so at odds during George Washington’s presidency that he had to act as a go-between. Jefferson would eventually resign.

As George Washington assumed the presidency, if he made public a to do list, it might have included the following among top priority items.

  • Restore internal confidence in self-government
  • Restore foreign confidence in the USA’s viability
  • Tackle the national debt
  • Keep the states from splintering into independent nations

These tasks were interrelated. For example, reducing the debt was necessary to restore international confidence. Success at self-government was necessary to keep the states committed to being one nation.

Washington’s Cabinet Choices Would be Critical

To achieve these goals, Washington needed the help of a strong cabinet. Since finances were so critical, he chose for Treasury secretary a man who understood public finance: Alexander Hamilton. Since dealing with foreign powers after the failure of the Articles of Confederation would require considerable experience and finesse, he chose Thomas Jefferson, then serving as US minister to France, for Secretary of State. Henry Knox was serving as War Department secretary, and Washington kept his old colleague in that position.

From the start, Hamilton and Jefferson did not get along. Jefferson, from Virginia in the predominantly agrarian South, was suspicious of commercialization. Manufactures could stay overseas and the finished goods imported as needed. A commercial society would become corrupt, he believed, which would make society unable to govern itself in a republican form of government.

Hamilton, from the commercially developing state of New York, saw a commercial society as the best way to improve the economic status of the most citizens. A purely agrarian society would be dominated by landed interests, which would tend to maintain an entrenched elite. Hamilton wanted to use government policy to accelerate commercialization.

Jefferson and Hamilton Fought Over How to Reduce the National Debt

Jefferson and Hamilton had not met prior to Jefferson’s return from France to serve in the cabinet. Almost immediately there was friction between them. Hamilton had been in his cabinet position for several months, and was implementing his vision and program through policy and congressional legislation. Jefferson thought Hamilton’s “Financial system was the entering wedge of a conspiracy to impose a monarchy on the US.” Hamilton thought Jefferson was merely trying to maintain the landed elite in their positions. He had the better grasp on public financial management than did Jefferson, who was brilliant in other ways.

Washington saw this dispute as essentially sectional in nature: North vs. South. He attempted to arbitrate between the two secretaries. He personally favored Hamilton’s program, yet did not want to alienate his fellow Virginian. Jefferson’s grasp of foreign affairs was too great to lose him as a cabinet officer.

Personality and Style Helped Cause the Hamilton-Jefferson Split

Not only were their politics different, but Hamilton and Jefferson also had clashing personalities and social styles. Jefferson had great intellect, and was accomplished in many fields. Yet he was rigid in his politics and tended to see a conspiracy behind every political idea that differed from his. Despite his years of government service, he was not at ease in public. Others found him humorless.

Hamilton was close to Jefferson’s intellectual equal, but was comfortable in public. He made political allies easily, and knew how to make deals so as to push forward his agenda. He got things done. He was perhaps a better reader of character than was Jefferson. He knew who his friend and enemies were, while Jefferson tended to confide in those who turned out to be in the other camp. Hamilton’s big weaknesses were his ego and being overly protective of his reputation.

Washington Tried to Placate Both Jefferson and Hamilton

George Washington did not fully understand all that Hamilton recommended as far as public financial policy, but he knew he needed both men to move the country forward and to hold it together, to gain favor with the European powers. He knew Hamilton had no designs on moving the nation toward becoming a monarchy, and sought to convince Jefferson of that.

When the dispute broke out into rival newspapers, Washington was deeply disturbed. He met with Jefferson and corresponded with him, in an attempt to end the “internal discussions..harrowing and tearing our vitals” and to ask for “more charity for opinions and acts of one another in Governmental matters” [Washington to Jefferson, August 23, 1972]. He began to hold more meetings with Department secretaries, which became the forerunner of the modern cabinet system.

Washington was not fully successful in his efforts. Jefferson resigned as Secretary of State in 1793. Perhaps he had done all he could to work with Hamilton, and Washington had had his services long enough to strike the right balance in foreign relations. In these relationships, Washington was able to get the men to work together long enough to help the nation further along on a firm footing.


HistoryLink.org

On Tuesday, November 28, 1978, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) filed a criminal complaint in U.S. District Court, Tacoma, charging 15 Pierce County men with racketeering. Federal marshals, together with agents of the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) immediately arrested eight of the men named in the complaint: Pierce County Sheriff George V. Janovich, John J. Carbone, his son, Joseph M. Carbone, Ronald J. Williams, Frank J. Mazzuca, LaMonte A. Zemek, Anthony J. Mladnich, and Richard F. Caliguri. And shortly thereafter, Robert M. Valentine, Jackie M. Bentley, Michael D. Johnson, Leroy G. Lusk, David W. Levage, Harry E. Wilcox, and William L. Pettit were taken into custody All of the defendants were booked into the King County Jail and then taken to Tacoma for initial court appearances before U.S. Magistrate Robert Cooper.

The complaint, which charged acts of arson, assault, bribery, extortion, and attempted murder, was the result of 13 months of investigation and undercover work by FBI and BATF agents. The case broke when Bentley and Johnson, half-brothers, were arrested in Kansas City, Missouri, in possession of a shotgun used in the attempted murder of Washington State Liquor Control Board Agent Melvin R. Journey at his home in Tacoma on November 15, 1977.

The men agreed to cooperate and told federal agents they had been hired by Valentine on behalf of John Carbone and Ronald Williams to kill Journey for interfering with their tavern businesses. Valentine not only admitted hiring the two gunmen but also told agents he had been engaged to arrange for the firebombing of various taverns in Pierce County for an assault on Jerome Leo Weinstein (1909-1988) suspected of providing information about Carbone’s businesses to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), and for a murder contract on Bentley and Johnson. Valentine agreed to become a government informant and introduce undercover agents to members of The Enterprise. From there, it was a matter of gathering enough hard evidence -- documenting meetings, recording private conversations, and making payoffs -- to substantiate the racketeering conspiracy and dismantle the organization.

Conspiring to Racketeer

On Friday, December 8, 1978, after four days of testimony, a federal grand jury in Seattle returned a sweeping 17-count indictment charging 15 members of The Enterprise with a racketeering conspiracy and numerous substantive offenses over a seven year period (1971 to 1978). It was an expanded version of the criminal complaint and structured on the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO), created in 1970 to combat organized crime. The indictment canceled the requirement for preliminary hearings in which the government would be obliged to present details of its case to establish probable cause for the arrests.

The RICO Act prohibits investment in, control, or operation of an “enterprise” through a pattern of racketeering activity. Under the statute, all the defendants are considered coconspirators, responsible for all the crimes committed by the group. Each defendant must be found guilty of at least two “ predicate acts” (specified crimes) for the defendant to be found guilty of the RICO count. Upon conviction, the maximum penalty for violation of the RICO Act is 20 years imprisonment and a $25,000 fine. However, it also allows the government to seize and forfeit all property and assets used by the criminal organization to further its goals.

According to the indictment, John Carbone was the leader of The Enterprise, directing and overseeing its activities. Williams was Carbone’s “chief lieutenant” and directed henchmen to carry out illegal acts. Mazzuca and “Joey” Carbone were also lieutenants and shared the responsibility of operating various taverns and discos owned or controlled by the organization. Caliguri was Carbone’s chief enforcer and provided security for The Enterprise. Zemek and Valentine acted as middlemen who hired gangsters for murder, assault, arson, and extortion. Mladnich and Pettit managed and provided security for the illegal gambling business. Lusk, Wilcox, and Levage were employed as arsonists, and Bentley and Johnson specialized in strong-arm tactics, killing, and the occasional firebombing. Sheriff Janovich protected The Enterprise by disclosing information, discouraging law enforcement investigations, using deputies to harass competing businesses, and permitting prostitution and illegal gambling.

Burning, Beating, Shooting

The federal investigation was prompted by a rash of arsons (10 or more in six years) at taverns and homes in Pierce County, with a $2 million loss. Between 1972 and 1977, three taverns owned or operated by members of The Enterprise were destroyed by fire. The owners paid off mortgages and debts with the insurance money, and either rebuilt the premises or opened new establishments nearby. Carbone even had his own house in Gig Harbor torched in order to appear as a targeted victim and for the insurance money. Between 1976 and 1978, several arsons occurred at discos and taverns featuring topless dancing, clearly aimed at driving out competition. The Pierce County Sheriff’s Department had been unsuccessful in solving the crimes, so BATF joined the investigation in the fall of 1977. When it became evident that Sheriff Janovich was providing information to Carbone and Williams, BATF pretended to abandon the arson investigation and partnered with the FBI in a undercover operation. They used Valentine to elicit and record conversations and introduce undercover agents into the organization.

The Enterprise used violence to extort money and intimidate people. A liquor control board agent, Carl A. Fiske, had his home firebombed on May 12, 1977. In November 1977, The Enterprise, through Valentine, hired Bentley and Johnson to kill state Liquor Control Board Agent Journey, age 45, for vigorously enforcing the state’s liquor laws. At approximately 7:15 a.m., Tuesday, November 15, Journey said goodbye to his wife, Phyllis, and 12-year-old daughter, Ami, and walked out the front door of his home to his car. Two men wearing dark clothing and stocking caps came up the driveway with firearms and opened fire. Journey was hit four times and three bullet holes were found in his car. Tacoma Police found eight 9-mm shell casings and one spent 12-gauge shotgun shell at the crime scene. The load of buckshot, apparently intended to scare his family, hit the house, breaking the front window. Journey was rushed to Saint Joseph Hospital in Tacoma where he underwent four hours of surgery to save his life.

In February 1978, Carbone had Jerome Weinstein, age 69, owner of the Prudential Mortgage Company, attacked and beaten. A few months earlier, his home had been destroyed by arson. The assailant fractured Weinstein's skull and damaged one eye. Carbone mistakenly thought he had been snitching to the IRS and told Weinstein he would be “protected” from further violence if he paid $2,500. The FBI supplied the payoff money and Weinstein gave it to Williams as instructed. Williams, however, said it wasn’t enough and demanded another $7,500, which the FBI supplied.

Ronald and Patricia Chase, owners of the Night Moves tavern, had their business firebombed twice. In addition, female topless-dancers who worked at the tavern had been routinely threatened and the Chases were being followed home after they closed the business for the night. In August 1978, Caliguri invaded the Chase’s home in Kent, armed with a butcher knife. He tied up the children, two little boys and a teenage girl, and the housekeeper and threatened to chop off their hands. Caliguri told the housekeeper to tell the Chases, who were not home at the time, to cease operations or he would return and kill them all. Later, federal agents foiled a plot to blow up the Night Moves tavern.

Sheriff Janovich had an agreement with members of The Enterprise to provide advance warning of any raid of its topless-dancing and illegal-gambling operations so evidence could be removed or destroyed. He accepted a bribe of $1,300 from an undercover agent, posing as a tavern buyer from Chicago, to provide protection for illegal gambling and prostitution operations.

U. S. District Court Judge Morell E. Sharp (1920-1980) was assigned to hear the case in Seattle on February 4, 1979. On January 26, however, he ordered the trial be moved outside of the Western District of Washington because the unparalleled amount of pre-trial publicity jeopardized the defendants’ Sixth-Amendment right to a fair trial. The trial was transferred to San Francisco, Northern District of California, and scheduled to begin on Monday, March 19, 1979. Before the trial began, six defendants, Valentine, Bentley, Johnson, Mladnich, Pettit, and Wilcox, decided to plead guilty and agreed to testify as government witnesses. One defendant, Leroy Lusk, was granted a separate trial because he couldn’t afford to defend himself in San Francisco.

Trial by jury began in San Francisco as scheduled before Judge Sharp, sitting by designation. John C. Merkel, U. S. Attorney for the Western District of Washington, and two assistants, Peter Mair and David Wilson represented the government and each defendant brought his own team of lawyers. After only two days of questioning -- fast for a complex trial with multiple defendants -- a jury composed of six men and six women, plus four alternates, was impaneled and sworn in.

The trial lasted three months, during which time more than 150 witnesses testified and hundreds of exhibits were introduced, including 77 tape recordings between the defendants and undercover agents. The prosecution took two months to present its case while the defense took less than two weeks. The defense began its case on Monday morning, May 21, 1979, calling Sheriff Janovich to the witness stand. Janovich, whose testimony was the longest, was on the stand for three days. Each of the other seven defendents took less than one day to present his case.

The case finally went to the jury at noon on Tuesday, June 12, 1979. Judge Sharp decided there was no need to sequester the jurors because the San Francisco press was not interested in covering the trial. On Tuesday afternoon, June 19, the jury returned the verdicts, finding seven of the eight defendants guilty of racketeering and a variety of other substantive offenses. Richard Levage, already serving a 20-year sentence at the Washington State Correctional Center in Shelton for setting fire to the Top of the Ocean, a landmark Tacoma restaurant, was found not guilty. Federal agents had linked that April 1977 fire in to the string of arsons perpetrated by The Enterprise.

Convictions and Appeals

On Wednesday, July 11, 1979, Judge Sharp sentenced the six defendants who had pleaded guilty to certain charges in the indictment and testified for the government. The heaviest sentences, 12 years, were given to Valentine, Bentley and Johnson for the attempted murder Agent Melvin Journey. On Friday, July 13, 1979, Judge Sharp sentenced the seven defendants found guilty at trial to sentences ranging from 12 to 25 years in federal custody. The U. S. Attorney’s Office reviewed the charges of conspiracy and mail fraud against Leroy Lusk and decided there wasn’t enough evidence to sustain a conviction. The charges against Lusk were dismissed on August 8, 1979.

The seven defendants appealed their convictions to the Ninth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals in San Francisco. They attacked the sufficiency of the evidence to support their convictions for a racketeering conspiracy and assigned judicial error to certain evidentiary rulings and jury instructions. The Court of Appeals affirmed the district court judgment and convictions on October 6, 1980.

Paying for a Sheriff's Crimes

One year after the trial, Melvin Journey, Ronald Chase, owner of the Night Moves tavern, and E. Norman Anderson, owner of the Back Forty tavern that had been firebombed three times, filed lawsuits in federal court against Pierce County and several defendants in the RICO case. The civil lawsuits charged violations of civil rights and collectively requested $13.5 million in damages.

On November 15, 1983, after losing both the Anderson and Journey civil trials, Pierce County officials negotiated a global settlement with the plaintiffs for $3.7 million. Ironically, Pierce County had refused to settle all three cases for $400,000 in 1981.

In the End .

In November 1980, Ronald Williams, facing 25-years in federal prison, decided to cooperate with the FBI and provided information that saved lives and resulted in numerous arrests. In addition, he prevented two major jailbreaks and the murder of at least one prison guard and two inmates who had been government witnesses. In February 1983, U.S. District Court Judge Walter T. McGovern (b. 1922) in Seattle, at the request of U.S. Attorney Gene Anderson and the FBI, reduced Williams sentence to time served -- four years. Because his cooperation endangered his life, Williams was given a new identity by the U.S. Marshal Service and put in the Witness Protection Program. Williams also gave a deposition in the civil lawsuits against Pierce County, alleging that more than 40 Washington state and Pierce County officials were involved in fostering The Enterprise’s illegal activities.

Crime boss John J. Carbone was released on parole from Atlanta Federal Penitentiary on December 20, 1991. He died on Tuesday, August 18, 1998, at Western State Hospital in Tacoma. Carbone was suffering from psychosis, dementia, and Parkinson’s disease. He was cremated and interred without a funeral or fanfare at Calvary Cemetery in Tacoma.

George V. Janovich was released on federal parole on December 19, 1986, after serving six years of his sentence. He was moved from prison to prison some 30 times and kept segregated from the general prison population because of his background in law enforcement -- 30 years with the Pierce County Sheriff’s Department. Janovich died in Gig Harbor on Sunday, June 19, 2005, of complications from a ruptured appendix. It was a bad year for the Janovich family: George’s wife, Joan died on March 9 and his son, George Jr., died on April 12. The Janovichs are inurned in the mausoleum at Haven of Rest Funeral Home and Cemetery in Gig Harbor.

Pierce County Responds

The racketeering scandal caused far-reaching changes in Pierce County government. In 1980, voters approved a new county charter by a 62 percent margin that did away with the three-commissioner system of government -- one that fostered political favoritism and corruption.

The new charter established an elected county executive and a seven-member county council, authorized to appoint the positions of sheriff and county clerk. Pierce became the only county in Washington state with an appointed rather than an elected sheriff. The first county executive was Booth Gardner (b. 1936) who later served two terms as Washington’s governor (1985-1993).