Informācija

Kara ziloņu izmantošana Ēģiptē


Diskusijā ar draugu mēs izdomājām šo tēmu. Mēs zinām, ka indieši, kartāgieši un persieši bija slaveni ar to, ka senajā karā izmantoja kara ziloņus. Bet tādas spēles kā Age of Empires un Age of Mythology, kas ir diezgan vēsturiski precīzas (ja neskaita, protams, mitoloģiskus fragmentus), attēlo ēģiptiešus ar kara ziloņiem.

Tomēr kara ziloņa Vikipēdijas lapā teikts, ka Ptolemaji sāka izmantot kara ziloņus. Ja tā ir taisnība, tad pirms Aleksandra laikmeta Ēģipte karā neizmantoja ziloņus, kas sava veida grauj ziloņu izmantošanu spēlēs (Ēģipte šajās spēlēs pārsvarā pārstāv faraonu laikmetu).

Tātad, tl; dr, mans jautājums ir šāds: kāds ir ēģiptiešu agrākais reģistrētais kara ziloņu lietojums?


Ziloņi bija izmiruši Ēģiptē aptuveni 2600.g.pmē. vai tā, plus vai mīnus dažus gadsimtus. Tātad tur ļoti ilgu laiku bija nav vietējo ziloņu, ko ēģiptieši varētu izmantot. Tas ir teorētiski iespējams ka faraoni varētu būt importējuši dažus militāriem mērķiem, bet es īsti neredzu tam nekādas pazīmes.

Neatkarīgi no tā, līdz brīdim, kad Ptolemajs I iedibinājās Ēģiptē, viņam pašam vajadzēja sākt savu ziloņu spēku no nulles. Viņu motivēja viņa pieredze Aleksandra Lielā vadībā, kas viņam iemācīja, cik potenciāli var būt spēcīgi ziloņi. Un arī tāpēc, ka viņa sāncensis Seleuks veidoja kara ziloņu armiju.

Agrīnā faraonu apsēstība ar ziloņkaulu, kā arī mainīgie klimatiskie apstākļi, bija pamatiedzīvotāju ziloņus iedzinuši Ēģiptes teritorijās. Kad Ptolemajs es uzzināju, ka zemēs uz dienvidiem no Ēģiptes ir ziloņi, viņš sāka gatavoties savvaļas ziloņu spēka savākšanai un apmācīšanai ... [Ptolemaja dēls Filadelfs] uzsāka kara ziloņu savākšanu.

- Kistlers, Džons M. Kara ziloņi. Nebraskas Universitātes prese, 2007.

Alternatīvi ir arī iespējams, ka kušīti pirms tam izmantoja kara ziloņus, kamēr viņi valdīja Ēģiptē. Tomēr es neesmu pārliecināts, vai vēlaties apsvērt šo "ēģiptiešu izmantošanu" kā tādu.

Kušīti (etiopieši) kara ziloņus izmantoja ilgi pirms Maķedonijas, pēc Arriāna teiktā ... Sufras Lielais iežogojums, iespējams, bija kara ziloņu apmācības centrs, jo ir rampas, kas ļauj viegli pārvietoties starp ēkām. Diemžēl mūsu izpratne par kušītiem ir niecīga, un to ir maz. Kas attiecas uz laiku, kad Kušs izmantoja kara ziloņus, pierādījumi nevar pierādīt pirmsptolemisma tradīcijas.

- Kistlers, Džons M. Kara ziloņi. Nebraskas Universitātes prese, 2007.


Šim 2300 gadus vecajam Ēģiptes cietoksnim bija neparasts uzdevums: apsargāt ostu, kas nosūtīja ziloņus uz karu

2300 gadus vecu cietoksni, kas aizsargāja seno ostu ar nosaukumu "Berenike", atklājusi Ēģiptē Sarkanās jūras piekrastē poļu-amerikāņu arheoloģiskā komanda.

Nocietinājumi ir būvēti laikā, kad Ēģiptē valdīja Ptolemajs, faraonu dinastija, kas cēlusies no viena Aleksandra Lielā ģenerāļa.

"Dubultā sienu līnija aizsargāja cietokšņa rietumu daļu, bet vienai līnijai pietika tālāk uz austrumiem un ziemeļiem. Kvadrātveida torņi tika uzcelti stūros un stratēģiskās vietās, kur savienojušās sienas," raksta arheologi Mareks Vozs 769niakand Joanna Ra ̨dkowska rakstā, kas nesen publicēts tiešsaistē žurnālā Antiquity. [Skatīt Sarkanās jūras cietokšņa fotogrāfijas Ēģiptē]

Cietokšņa rietumu daļa, kas sastāv no dubultām sienām, ir vērsta uz iekšzemi, kas liek domāt, ka aizstāvji bija īpaši noraizējušies par uzbrukumu, kas nāk no šī virziena, portālam Live sacīja Varšavas universitātes Polijas Vidusjūras arheoloģijas centra pārstāvis Vozs#769niak. Zinātne.

Lielākā un stiprākā Berenikes cietokšņa daļa ir komplekss, kas ir aptuveni 525 pēdas (160 metrus) garš un 262 pēdas (80 m) plats un sastāv no "trim lieliem pagalmiem un vairākām saistītām struktūrām, veidojot slēgtu nocietinātu kompleksu. darbnīcās un veikalos, "rakstīja Vozs un#769niaks un Ra ̨dkowska, kurš ir Polijas Zinātņu akadēmijas Vidusjūras un Austrumu kultūru institūtā. Visiespaidīgākais cietokšņa aspekts ir tā arhitektūra, sacīja Vozs un#769niaks, kurš pastāstīja Live Science, ka tās "labi izveidotā monumentālā arhitektūra, ko sedz un aizsargā smiltis, ir pārsteidzoša".

Cietokšņa vārtu namā arheologi atrada akmeņainu aku un virkni kanalizācijas un baseinu, kas savāca, uzglabāja un izplatīja gan gruntsūdeņus, gan lietus ūdeni. "Divu lielāko baseinu kopējā ietilpība varētu būt vairāk nekā 17 000 litru," rakstīja Vozs un#769niaks un Ra ̨dkowska. Fakts, ka lietus ūdens tika novadīts un savākts, liek domāt, ka Berenike bija "mitrāks klimats nekā šodien", viņi atzīmēja.

Ziemeļu aizsardzības sienas dienvidu pusē, senā atkritumu izgāztuvē, arheologi atklāja terakotas figūriņas, monētas un ziloņa galvaskausa gabalu.

"Interesanti, ka šķiet, ka [Berenike] administratori nocietinājumus uzskatīja par nevajadzīgiem. Daži no tiem tika demontēti pēc ļoti īsa pastāvēšanas laika," Woz ́niak sacīja Live Science, norādot, ka nav atrasti pierādījumi par uzbrukumu Berenikei. . Ptolemaji bieži uzcēla nocietinātas pilsētas un fortus pie savas valstības robežām, sacīja Vozs un#769niak, piebilstot, ka Ptolemaji nevarēja būt pārliecināti, kā vietējie iedzīvotāji uz robežas reaģēs uz viņu klātbūtni.


Kara ziloņu izmantošana Ēģiptē - vēsture

Pārvietojieties pāri Hanibālam. Vairāk par Kartāgu. Šī aplāde ir par daudz LIELĀKU ziloņu spēku senatnē. Vara, kas savā augstumā stiepās no mūsdienu Bulgārijas līdz Hindu Kušam: Seleikīdu impērija. Indijas zilonis, kas pastāvēja gandrīz 250 gadus, visā šīs impērijas vēsturē palika pašā sirdī. Kaujas laukā šie milzu kara zvēri kļuva par seleikīdu kara simboliem, kas cīnījās gandrīz visās (ja ne visās) galvenajās militārajās tikšanās reizēs ar selekīdiem ar citām pilnvarām: no Ipsas līdz Magnēzijai. Bet arī prom no kaujas lauka šie dzīvnieki saglabāja savu nozīmi, jo īpaši seleikīdu karaļiem.

Seleikīdu ziloņu kara vēsture ir aizraujoša, un bija liels prieks, ka kopā ar Dr Silvannen Gerrard pievienojās runāt par šo tēmu. Silvannens paskaidroja, kā šie ziloņi tika apmācīti un izmantoti karā, taču viņa arī uzsvēra to nozīmi ārpus kaujas lauka - to prestiža vērtību, ziloņu pieskatīšanas loģistiku un to, kā tie iemieso būtisku tirdzniecības saikni ar seno Indiju. Viņa arī atbildēja uz visu svarīgo jautājumu: vai Senie sūtīja ziloņus kaujā piedzēries?

Ak, un pārliecinieties, ka klausāties TIKAI līdz galam!

Eumenes, Antigonus, Ptolemy un Seleucus bija slaveni spēlētāji, kas cīnījās pēc Aleksandra Lielā nāves.

Ptolemajs bija hellenistiskās Ptolemaja Karalistes dibinātājs, kuras centrs bija Ēģipte.

Sarrisas bija ļoti garas līdakas - apmēram 6 metrus garas.

Galatieši: gallu cilšu konglomerāts, kas apmetās mūsdienu centrālajā Anatolijā.

Mēs (galvenokārt es) ejam turp un atpakaļ starp “Seleucid” un “Seleukid”. Tā pati valstība!


ELEFANTI UN CILVĒKI: VĒSTURE, KARA ELEFANTI, KARALITĀTE UN POLO

Ziloņi ir lielākie dzīvnieki, kurus pieradinājuši cilvēki. Deivids Montgomerijs rakstīja laikrakstā Washington Post: “Gandrīz visā cilvēces vēsturē šie ļoti inteliģentie, lielākie sauszemes dzīvnieki ir bijuši aizraujoši un funkcionāli, sagatavoti kalpošanai transporta, kara, celtniecības, izrāžu un izklaides jomā. Pirmais uz ASV importētais zilonis ieradās 1790. gados un tika nekavējoties izstādīts izstādē. Līdz 1800. gadu vidum viņi bija populāri cirka mākslinieki .. [Avots: David Montgomery, Washington Post, 2009. gada 16. decembris]

Ričards Līrs, kurš tika uzskatīts par ekspertu, kurš pieradināja Āzijas ziloņus, rakstīja: “Skaidrs, ka pieradināti ziloņi ir vienkārši savvaļas dzīvnieki, kas savērsti ķēdēs, bet savvaļas dzīvnieki bieži ir pietiekami maigi un saprātīgi, lai būtu pilnīgi uzticami kā bērnu aukle, lai uzraudzītu cilvēku zīdaiņi. ”

Cilvēkiem un ziloņiem ir citas saites, ziloņi cieš no gremošanas traucējumiem, elpošanas problēmām un pat saaukstējas kā cilvēki. Zoo ziloņi ir miruši no herpes un izārstēti ar pretvitāli svarīgām zālēm, kas izārstējušas cilvēkus. Savvaļas ziloņi ir miruši arī no ziloņu herpes. Stingumkrampji ir bieži letāla slimība ziloņiem.

Ja zilonis nāk dzenoties pēc jums, vislabāk ir skriet aiz koka vai cieta, nekustīga objekta. Ja apkārt ir koki vai masīvi, nekustīgi priekšmeti. Es nezinu, skrien kā ellē.

Zinātnieki var identificēt atsevišķus ziloņus pēc dažādām ausu formām un citiem materiāliem. Viņi dažreiz izseko ziloni no vēdera skaņas.

Grāmata: Maldījies Richard Lair tiek uzskatīts par galīgo grāmatu par Āzijas ziloņiem. Lair ir pazīstams kā “profesors zilonis”. Viņš apmācīja ziloņus Disneja filmai, Operācija Dumbo Drop.

Ganeša


Ganešs Ganešs ir hinduistu ziloņu galvas labklājības, gudrības, veiksmes, saprāta un veiksmes dievs. Ļoti populārs, īpaši Bombejā un Indijas dienvidos un rietumos, viņš ir pazīstams kā šķēršļu radītājs un noņēmējs, laimes dāvinātājs un bēdu likvidētājs. Hinduisti lūdz un piedāvā viņam ziedojumus pirms ceļojuma uzsākšanas, mājas iegādes, izrādes uzsākšanas vai biznesa uzsākšanas. Pat citi dievi izrāda cieņu viņam, pirms viņi iesaistās jebkāda veida darbībās, lai viņš varētu novērst šķēršļus.

Ganešs ir Šivas un Parvati dēls. Tiek uzskatīts, ka viņš ir attīstījies no auglības dieva, viņš bieži tiek attēlots ar milzīgu poda vēderu, nedaudz rūķīti, sēž kā Buda vai brauc ar piecgalvu kobru vai žurku. Viņam ir divas vai četras rokas. Vienā rokā viņš nēsā rīsu bumbiņas jeb saldumus (viņam patīk ēst un īpaši mīl saldumus). Citā viņš tur salauztus ilkņu gabalus, ar kuriem bija rakstīts, ka viņš uzrakstījis Mahabharatu tā, kā gudrie viņam to diktējuši. Dažreiz viņa stumbrs balstās bļodā, kuru viņš tur vienā rokā. Dažreiz viņš nēsā tridentu, lai norādītu savu saiti uz Šivu. Citreiz viņš nes cilpiņu vai ziloņu kazu. Ganeša saistība ar žurkām izriet no žurku spējas kaut ko grauzt un noņemt šķēršļus.

Ganešs bieži ir dievs, par kuru cilvēki lūdz palīdzību ikdienas problēmu risināšanā. National Geographic dabas fotogrāfs Frans Lantings rakstīja, ka Indijā: “Ganešas statujas ir visur-uz automašīnu paneļiem un mājās. Saistības dēļ ar Ganešu daži cilvēki pat ar cieņu izturas pret savvaļas ziloņiem, kas uzbrūk viņu kultūrām. Lauksaimnieki pat ir paklanījušies rouge ziloņa priekšā, nevis aizbēguši. ”

Stāsti par Ganešu

Šie ir vairāki stāsti, kas izskaidro, kā Ganešs ieguva ziloņa galvu. Saskaņā ar vienu viņš mēģināja neļaut Šivai iekļūt telpā, kurā peldējās Parvati. Šiva par to sadusmojās un nogrieza Ganešam cilvēka galvu. Pēc tam, kad Parvati radīja satraukumu, Šiva nomainīja galvu pret nākamā redzētā dzīvnieka galvu, kas bija zilonis.

Populārs Ganeša stāsts, ko Indijas vecākiem patīk stāstīt saviem bērniem, ir šāds: Ganešu un viņa brāli trīs reizes visā pasaulē izaicināja māte. Ganeša brālis zibens ātrumā pacēlās apkārt pasaulei, bet Ganešs uzvarēja, vienkārši trīs reizes apbraukājot savus vecākus, sakot: “tu esi mana pasaule”.

1995. gada septembrī tika saņemtas ziņas par Ganeša piena dzeršanu Kalkutā un Džersijas pilsētā dažu stundu laikā. Neilgi pēc tam tika ziņots par Jaunavas Marijas statūtiem, kas dzēra pienu Češīrā, Anglijā un Kualalumpurā.

Ziloņi un vēsture

Ziloņi Āzijā ir "noķerti, salauzti, apmācīti un nodoti darbam" vairāk nekā 4000 gadu. Pirmā ziloņu suga, kas tika pieradināta, bija Āzijas zilonis, kas paredzēts izmantošanai lauksaimniecībā. Senākie pierādījumi par ziloņu pieradināšanu - nevis pilnīga pieradināšana, jo tie joprojām tika notverti savvaļā --- nāk no Indas ielejas civilizācijas aptuveni 4500. gadā pirms mūsu ēras

Harapanas zīmogs no aptuveni 2000. gada pirms mūsu ēras

Pastāv ieteikums, ka ziloņi tika pieradināti senajā Ēģiptē pirms 5500 gadiem. Ziloņi, kas apglabāti sarežģītās kapenēs, datēti ar 3500. gadu p.m.ē., tika atrasti Hierakonpolisin senās Ēģiptes kapsētā. Viens no ziloņiem bija desmit līdz vienpadsmit gadus vecs. Tas ir vecums, kad jaunie tēviņi tiek izraidīti no ganāmpulka. Jauni un nepieredzējuši viņi var tikt notverti un apmācīti šajā vecumā.

Zilonis ir Budas simbols un atkal un atkal ir parādījies daudzos hinduistu stāstos. Birmieši un taizemieši un citi Dienvidaustrumāzijas iedzīvotāji uzskata, ka savulaik visi ziloņi bija baltas radības, kas lidoja pa gaisu. Viens šāds zilonis, saskaņā ar leģendu, lidoja karalienes Sirimahamaya pusē, kamēr viņa gulēja sapņojot, radot Kunga Budas nevainojamo ieņemšanu. Hinduisti ļoti godā ziloņus, jo tie ir saistīti ar ziloņgalvu Ganešu, vienu no svarīgākajiem hindu dieviem

Tiek uzskatīts, ka nebrīvē dzīvojošo ziloņu skaits Mogulu karaļu laikmetā 16. un 17. gadsimtā bija aptuveni 130 000. No 16. līdz 19. gadsimtam ziloņi tika izmantoti mežizstrādes, kara un reliģiskās ceremonijās, un Lielbritānijas Austrumindijas uzņēmums tos tirgoja visā Āzijā.

Saskaņā ar slaveno pasaku, trīs akli vīrieši uzgāja ziloni un nevarēja saprast, kas tas ir. Pirmais vīrietis sajuta ziloņa kāju un domāja, ka tas ir koks, otrs satver asti un uzskatīja, ka tā ir virve, bet trešais pieskārās stumbram un uzskatīja, ka tā ir čūska.

Starp tiem, kas dedzīgi medīja Āfrikas ziloņus, bija Teodors Rūzvelts un Ernests Hemingvejs. Rūzvelts savos safari braucienos Lielbritānijas Austrumāfrikā nogalināja četrus ziloņus mazāk nekā piecu minūšu laikā. Jūs varat redzēt divus dzīvniekus Āfrikas zīdītāju zālē Amerikas Dabas vēstures muzejā Vašingtonā.

Kaujas ziloņi

Ziloņi kalpoja kā bruņas senās cīņās Āzijā. Daži uzskata tos par tanku prototipu. Atskanot bungām, karavīrs ar šķēpiem virzījās uz ziloņu muguras, kamēr karavīri ar zobeniem sargāja dzīvnieku kājas. Kara ziloņi dažreiz valkāja smagas bruņas. Viņi varētu būt spēki cīņā un izvest lielu skaitu ienaidnieka karaspēka, vienkārši saspiežot tos zem kājām, bet ievainoti var arī kļūt nevadāmi.

Ziloņus varēja izmantot militāriem mērķiem. Cīņā kara ziloņi parasti tika izvietoti līnijas centrā, kur tie varētu būt noderīgi, lai novērstu lādiņu vai veiktu savu. Viņu milzīgais izmērs un biedējošais izskats lika viņiem novērtēt smago kavalēriju. Ārpus kaujas lauka viņi varēja pārvadāt smagus materiālus un bija noderīgs transporta līdzeklis. [Avots: Wikipedia]

Ziloņa lādiņš varētu sasniegt aptuveni 30 km/h (20 jūdzes stundā), un atšķirībā no zirgu kavalērijas to nevarētu viegli apturēt ar kājnieku līnijas uzstādītajiem šķēpiem. Šāda lādiņa pamatā bija tīrs spēks: ziloņi ietriecās ienaidnieka līnijā, mīdīja un šūpoja ilkņus. Tos vīriešus, kuri nebija saspiesti, vismaz nogāza malā vai piespieda atpakaļ. Turklāt ziloņi var iedvesmot šausmas ienaidniekā, kas nav pieradis cīnīties pret viņiem - pat ļoti disciplinētajiem romiešiem -, un var izraisīt ienaidnieka lūzumu un bēgšanu. Zirgi, kas nebija pieraduši pie ziloņu smakas, arī viegli panika. Ziloņu biezā āda viņiem sniedza ievērojamu aizsardzību, bet viņu augums un masa piedāvāja ievērojamu aizsardzību viņu braucējiem. Daudzi ģenerāļi izvēlējās balstīties uz ziloņiem, lai labāk redzētu kaujas lauku. [Turpat]

Papildus uzlādei ziloņi varētu nodrošināt drošu un stabilu platformu loka šāvējiem, lai kaujas lauka vidū izšautu bultas, no kurām varēja redzēt un piesaistīt vairāk mērķu. Loka šaušana pārtapa progresīvākos ieročos, un vairāki khmeru un indiešu karaļi izmantoja milzu arbaleta platformas (līdzīgas ballistam), lai izšautu garas bruņu caurduršanas šahtas, lai nogalinātu citus ienaidnieka kara ziloņus un kavalēriju. Arī mūsu ēras 16. gadsimta beigās tika pielietota kulverīna un jingalu izmantošana ziloņiem, pielāgojoties šaujampulvera laikmetam, kas galu galā izdzina ziloņus no kaujas lauka. [Turpat]

Āzijā tika pārvadāts liels skaits vīriešu, vecākais komandieris vai nu izmantoja hovdu, vai arī vadīja no savas vietas uz ziloņa kakla. Vadītājs, saukts par mahout, bija atbildīgs par dzīvnieka kontroli. Daudzās armijās mahouts nēsāja arī kalta asmeni un āmuru, lai izgrieztu muguras smadzenes un nogalinātu dzīvnieku, ja zilonis nokautos.

Cīņa starp taju un birmiešiem

Ziloņi tika vēl vairāk uzlaboti ar saviem ieročiem un bruņām. Indijā un Šrilankā smagās dzelzs ķēdes ar tērauda lodītēm beigās bija piesietas pie kara ziloņu stumbriem, kuru dzīvnieki tika apmācīti draudīgi un ļoti prasmīgi virpuļot. Daudzas kultūras izstrādāja ziloņu bruņas, kuru mērķis bija aizsargāt dzīvnieka ķermeni un kājas, vienlaikus atstājot viņa stumbru brīvu uzbrukumam ienaidniekam. Lielākiem dzīvniekiem mugurā varēja būt arī aizsargtornis, ko sauc par hadu. [Turpat]

Kara ziloņiem tomēr bija taktiski trūkumi, kurus ienaidnieka spēki bieži iemācījās izmantot. Ziloņiem bija tendence uz paniku: pēc sāpīgu brūču gūšanas vai vadītāja nogalināšanas viņi skrēja apmulstot, bez izņēmuma izraisot upurus. Viņu paniskā atkāpšanās var radīt lielus zaudējumus abās pusēs. Viena slavena vēsturiska metode ziloņu vienību izjaukšanai bija kara cūka. Senie rakstnieki uzskatīja, ka "ziloņus biedē mazākais cūkas čīkstiens", un ievainojamība tika izmantota. Piemēram, Megaras ielenkumā Diadoči karu laikā, kā ziņots, megari piebēra eļļu cūku ganāmpulkam, aizdedzināja un dzina pret ienaidnieka masveida kara ziloņiem. Ziloņi šausmās aizskrēja no liesmojošām čīkstošām cūkām. [Turpat]

Aleksandrs Lielais cīnās ar ziloņiem Indijā

Pēdējā lielā Aleksandra kampaņas kauja notika Dželumā pie Indas upes (110 kilometrus uz dienvidaustrumiem no mūsdienu Islamabadas, Pakistāna) pret karali Poru-milzīgu līderi, kurš, kā teikts, bijis gandrīz septiņas pēdas garš un vadījis karaļvalsti. kas aptvēra lielu daļu pandžabu mūsdienu Indijā un Pakistānā.

326. gada pavasarī pirms mūsu ēras Aleksandra armija iesaistīja karaļa Porus spēkus, kuros bija 35 000 kājnieku, 10 000 kavalērijas un 200 kaujas apmācīti ziloņi. Kērts rakstīja: “Pors pats brauca ar ziloni, kas stāvēja virs citiem zvēriem. Viņa bruņas ar zelta un sudraba ielaidumu izceļ viņa neparasti lielo miesasbūvi. "

Abi spēki atradās pretī viens otram dažādās upes pusēs, un Aleksandrs veda uzbrukumu naktī pērkona laikā, lai Indijas armija nedzirdētu un neredzētu viņu nākam. Pēc tam Aleksandrs slēpa daļu savas kavalērijas un uzbrukumā atbrīvoja pārējo armiju. Porus lielāko daļu armijas uzticēja Aleksandra uzlādēšanas spēkiem un palika neaizsargāts pret slēptās kavalērijas uzbrukumu.

Cīņā ziloņi "nepārtraukti sadūrās ar draugiem un ienaidniekiem", uzskata Arriāns. Un pēc vairākām stundām indiāņi atkāpās mežonīgā apjukumā un Pors tika notverts. Aleksandrs apbrīnoja Pora drosmi un ļāva viņam saglabāt savu valstību ar nosacījumu, ka palika uzticīgs Aleksandram. Tika teikts, ka kurts izglāba Aleksandru Lielo no drošas nāves no uzlādējama ziloņa.


Hanibāls šķērso Roni, ko veidojis Henrijs Mote 1878

Hannibals un viņa ziloņi šķērso Alpus

No savas bāzes Spānijā Hannibals vadīja algotņu karaspēku ar ziloņiem cauri Gallijas dienvidiem (Francija) un pāri Alpiem 218. gada ziemā pirms mūsu ēras. Tas iezīmēja Otrā pūniešu kara sākumu. Ziloņiem bija maza ietekme uz cīņu, taču viņi guva psiholoģisku triecienu kartāgiešiem, dodot viņiem spēka un neuzvaramības auru.

Otrajā pūniešu karā, 218-201 B.C., Kartāga vēlējās atriebties pēc pirmā pūniešu kara. Bet galu galā Roma aizstāja Kartāgu kā Vidusjūras dominējošo varu. Karš bija nozīmīgs pavērsiens Romas attīstībā no republikas par impērijas varu.

Hanibāls veda 59 000 karavīru un 27 ziloņus pāri Alpiem. Viņa armija šķērsoja Ronu bez tilta un, iespējams, pārcieta sniega vētras un sniega kupenas, šķērsojot Alpus. Dažos gadījumos visi ziloņi, izņemot vienu, un puse Hanibāla karavīru tika nogalināti Alpos.

Neviens nav pārliecināts, kādu ceļu izvēlējās Hanibāls. Liela daļa no tā, kas rakstīts par ziloņiem un Alpiem, ir spekulācijas. Par Hanibāla maršrutu Marks Tvens savulaik rakstīja: "Daudzu antikvāru pētījumi par šo tēmu jau ir radījuši daudz tumsas, un, ja tie turpināsies, iespējams, ka drīz mēs vispār neko neuzzināsim." Liela daļa Hanibāla un viņa ziloņu tēlu nāk no Flauberta Salammbo.

Ziloņi Kartagā un Romā

Ziloņu dzimtene bija Ziemeļāfrika feniķiešu laikos. Tur bija ziloņu fermas, lai ražotu dzīvniekus darbam un ziloņkaulu amatniekam. Ziloņi tika ievesti karadarbībā pēc tam, kad Aleksandrs Lielais un viņa vīri sastapās ar viņiem Indijā. Viņi bija daļa no Kartāgas armijas no trešā gadsimta pirms mūsu ēras. uz priekšu.

Pūniešu karos kaujā tika izmantota trīs vīru apkalpe: loka šāvēji un potenciāli vīrieši, kas bija bruņoti ar sarisām (sešus metrus garas līdakas). Pieredzējuši romiešu kājnieki bieži mēģināja pārgriezt stumbrus, izraisot tūlītēju paniku un, cerams, izraisot ziloņa bēgšanu savās līnijās. Ar šķēpiem bruņoti ātrie cīņu dalībnieki tika izmantoti arī to dzīšanai, jo šķēpi un līdzīgi ieroči varēja satracināt ziloni. Ziloņi bieži bija neapbruņoti un neaizsargāti pret sitieniem uz sāniem, tāpēc romiešu kājnieki apbruņoja kādu liesmojošu priekšmetu vai ar spēcīgu līdaku līniju, piemēram, Triarii, bieži mēģināja likt zilonim pagriezties, lai pakļautu savu sānu kājniekiem. zilonis, kas ir uzņēmīgs pret līdakas vilci vai Šķirmeista šķēpu. [Avots: Wikipedia]


Hanibāls šķērso Alpus

Pūniešu karu beigās Roma atveda daudzus ziloņus un pēc tam daudzus gadus izmantoja tos savās kampaņās. Grieķijas iekarošanā notika daudzas kaujas, kurās romieši izvietoja kara ziloņus, tostarp iebrukums Maķedonijā 199. gadā pirms mūsu ēras, Cynoscelphalae kauja 197. gadā pirms mūsu ēras, Thermopylae kauja un Magnēzijas kauja 190. gadā pirms mūsu ēras, kuras laikā Antiohs III piecdesmit -četri ziloņi uzņēma sešpadsmit gadus veco romiešu spēku. Vēlākos gados romieši 168. gadā pirms mūsu ēras Pydnā izvietoja divdesmit divus ziloņus. Viņi arī piedalījās visā romiešu kampaņā pret celtiberiešiem Hispanijā un pret galliem. Slaveni, ka romieši iebrukumā Lielbritānijā izmantoja kara ziloni, kāds senais rakstnieks pierakstīja, ka “Cēzarim bija viens liels zilonis, kurš bija aprīkots ar bruņām un savā tornī nesa strēlniekus un stropes. Kad šī nezināmā būtne ienāca upē, briti un viņu zirgi aizbēga, un Romas armija šķērsoja. ” [Turpat]

Āfrikas ziloņus izmantoja Hannibāls no Kartāgas. Jau sen tika uzskatīts, ka Āzijas, bet Ziemeļāfrikas ziloņus var pieradināt. Eksperimenti Zimbabvē, Dienvidāfrikā un Botsvānā ir parādījuši, ka Āfrikas ziloņus var pieradināt. Savaldītie ziloņi tiek apmācīti jaunībā. Tie ir bāreņi, kuru māti prasmīgi veica malumednieki. Viņi bieži ir ļoti pieķērušies saviem cilvēkiem. Parku sargi Zimbabvē brauc ar ziloņiem patruļās pret malumedniecību. Viņiem ir plāns izmantot dzīvniekus, lai uzartu akmeņainus, cietus laukus, kurus citi dzīvnieki nespēj tikt galā.

Daži cirka ziloņi ir Āfrikas ziloņi. Botsvānā gids ir apmācījis kādreizējos cirka ziloņus vest tūristus safari, kā to dara Indijas ziloņi Indijā un Nepālā. "Pēc pavēles," raksta Gails Faress, kurš devās safari uz Āfrikas ziloņa, "ziloņi nokrita ceļos, un kāds darbinieks nodrošināja mums ceļgalu, lai mēs varētu uzkāpt, kad mēs uzkāpām zilonim virsū un howdah (kastes segli). Pēc tam mahout mūs brīdināja, kad zilonis gatavojās celties. Mēs pakarinājāmies pie Howdah sāniem, kad mēs noliecāmies atpakaļ un tad lēcāmies uz priekšu. Tas nav bīstami vai biedējoši, kamēr esat gatavs kad mahout dod rīkojumu. 3 līdz 4 rīta un pēcpusdienas spēļu braucienos mēs izmēģinājām vairākas pozīcijas, lai mainītu kāju un muskuļus. Mēs sēdējām ar kājām priekšā vai ar vienu kāju katrā pusē zem rāmja vai ar sakrustotām kājām zem mums. Aiz muguras bija neliels nodalījums. ”

Kara ziloņi senajā un viduslaiku Āzijā

Otrā gadsimta pirms mūsu ēras Han dinastija cīnījās pret Dienvidaustrumāzijas jū karaļvalstīm (senajiem vjetnamiešiem), kurās tika nodarbināti kara ziloņi. Kopējā taktika, ko izmantoja šo ziloņu atbaidīšanai, ietvēra masveida arbaletu vai artilērijas uguni un rakšanas bedres vai tranšejas, kas piepildītas ar tapām. Šrilankas vēstures ieraksti liecina, ka ziloņi tika izmantoti kā stiprinājumi karaļiem, kuri vadīja savus vīrus kaujas laukā, un atsevišķi stiprinājumi tika ierakstīti vēsturē. Zilonis Kandula bija karaļa Dutugamunu kalns un Maha Pambata - “Lielais klints” - karaļa Elaras kalns, piemēram, vēsturiskās tikšanās laikā kaujas laukā 200. gadā pirms mūsu ēras. Dienvidaustrumāzijā, gar mūsdienu Vjetnamas robežām, Šampana armija pret Sui ķīniešiem nodarbināja līdz 602 kara ziloņiem. Sui karaspēks noveda ziloņus slazdā, iekrītot viņu izraktās dziļās bedrēs, plaši izmantojot arī arbaletus. [Avots: Wikipedia]

Visā 13. gadsimtā mongoļi saskārās ar kara ziloņiem Horazmā, Birmā, Vjetnamā un Indijā. Neskatoties uz neveiksmīgajām kampaņām Vjetnamā un Indijā, mongoļi pieveica kara ziloņus ārpus Samarkandas, izmantojot katapultas un mangoneļus, un Birmā, dušā bultas no sava slavenā saliktā loka. Gan Čingis, gan Kublai savā svīta sastāvā paturēja sagūstītos ziloņus. Vēl viens Centrālāzijas iebrucējs Timurs gadsimtu vēlāk saskārās ar līdzīgām problēmām. 1398. gadā Timura armija cīņā saskārās ar vairāk nekā simts Indijas ziloņu un gandrīz zaudēja baiļu dēļ, ko viņi radīja viņa karaspēka vidū. Vēsturiskajos stāstos teikts, ka Timurīdi galu galā uzvarēja, izmantojot ģeniālu stratēģiju: pirms apsūdzības Timurs piesēja liesmojošus salmus kamieļu aizmugurē. Dūmi lika kamieļiem skriet uz priekšu, biedējot ziloņus, kuri savos centienos atkāpties saspieda savus karaspēkus. Vēl viens kampaņas pārskats ziņo, ka Timurs izmantoja negabarīta caltropus, lai apturētu ziloņu uzlādi. Vēlāk Timurid vadītājs noķertos dzīvniekus izmantoja pret Osmaņu impēriju. [Turpat]

Ir ierakstīts, ka karalim Rajasinghe I, kad viņš 1558. gadā aplenca Portugāles fortu Kolombo, Šrilankā, bija 2200 ziloņu armija. Šrilankas iedzīvotāji bija turpinājuši savas lepnās tradīcijas ziloņu sagūstīšanā un apmācībā no seniem laikiem. Virsnieku, kas bija atbildīgs par karaliskajiem staļļiem, ieskaitot ziloņu sagūstīšanu, sauca par Gajanayake Nilame, savukārt Kuruve Lekham postenis kontrolēja Kuruwe jeb ziloņu vīriešus-kara ziloņu apmācība bija Kuruwe klana pienākums saskaņā ar viņu pašu Muhandiram, Šrilankas administratīvo amatu. [Turpat]

Dienvidaustrumāzijā spēcīgā khmeru impērija līdz mūsu ēras 9. gadsimtam bija nonākusi reģionālā dominējošā stāvoklī, lielā mērā izmantojot kara ziloņu izmantošanu. Unikāli khmeru militāristi izvietoja dubultus lokus ziloņu augšgalā. Līdz ar khmeru varas sabrukumu 15. gadsimtā arī Birmas (tagad Mjanma) un Siāmas (tagad Taizeme) pēcteču reģionu varas pieņēma plašu kara ziloņu izmantošanu. Daudzās šī perioda cīņās līderiem bija prakse personīgi cīnīties savā starpā ar ziloņiem. [Turpat]

Viena slavena kauja notika, kad Birmas armija uzbruka Siāmas Ajathajas karalistei. Karš tika pabeigts, kad Siāmas karalis Naresuans 1593. gadā nogalināja Birmas kroņprinci Minčitu Šru personīgā kaujā pret ziloni. Tālāk uz ziemeļiem ķīnieši turpināja noraidīt kara ziloņu izmantošanu visā periodā. Pēc žurnālista Duglasa Čadvika teiktā, Taizeme Birma "ne tikai cīnījās episkās cīņās ar ziloņiem, bet arī kādreiz tika cīnīta viņu dēļ. Kad Birmas karalis sasniedza ziņu, ka septiņi baltie ziloņi ir atrasti un nosūtīti Taizemes monarham, viņu pārņēma greizsirdība un uzsāka iebrukumu. "←

Baltie ziloņi

Taizemiešu un citu Dienvidaustrumāzijas tautu vidū baltie ziloņi tiek uzskatīti par varas un auglības simboliem. Saskaņā ar budistu vēsturi, Budas māte karaliene Mahamaja sapņoja par baltu ziloņbērnu Kunga Budas ieņemšanas brīdī. Balto ziloņu atklāšana savvaļā ir nozīmīgs notikums, kas izraisa lielu satraukumu Dienvidaustrumāzijas valstīs. Tas ir krasā pretstatā Rietumiem, kur izteiciens “baltais zilonis” apraksta dārgu, bet bezjēdzīgu lietu.

Baltie ziloņi tiek uzskatīti par vislaimīgākajiem dzīvniekiem Laosā, Taizemē, Birmā un Kambodžā, cik vien kāds to atceras. Tie ir meklēti un skaudības objekti. Kings viņu tituliem pievienoja īpašumtiesības. Lielās impērijas ir devušās karā par tām.

Karaliskie “baltie ziloņi” Taizemē patiesībā ir sārti brūni vai ar dažiem bālganiem apzīmējumiem. Tos bieži ir grūti atšķirt no parastajiem ziloņiem. Tikai viens izskatās patiesi bāls. Pārējie izskatās kā normāli ziloņi. Viņu īstais nosaukums ir chang samkan, kas nozīmē “svarīgs” vai “nozīmīgs” zilonis. Lielākā daļa nav albīni, kas parasti ir bālgani smilškrāsas.

2004. gadā Jalas nacionālajā parkā Šrilankā tika atklāts smilškrāsas albīnu zilonis. Tā bija sieviete, domājams, aptuveni 11 gadus veca. Šādu dzīvnieku var atrast ārkārtīgi reti. Ir ziņots par šādu ziloņu novērojumiem Taizemē un citās vietās, kas liecina par pirmo reizi, kad tika apstiprināts īsta albīnu ziloņa eksistence.

Taizemes karaliskie baltie ziloņi

Karaliskais ģerbonis Laosai

Taizemē 2000. gadu sākumā bija 11 “balti” ziloņi. Monarha varas simboli piederēja karalim Bhumibol Adulyadej. Persona, kurai ir visvairāk balto ziloņu, tiek uzskatīta par visspēcīgāko cilvēku Taizemē. Ziloņu esamība un laba veselība nodrošina Taizemes valstības labklājību. Tie tiek uzskatīti par Eravanas-dieva Indras daudzgalvaino debess ziloni-zemes izpausmi.

Bangkokas karaļa pilī aiz karaliskā grāvja dzīvo tikai viens karaliskais zilonis. Citi dzīvo citās iestādēs citur Taizemē. Daži karaliskie ziloņi tiek turēti Lambangas ziloņu centrā, kur katrai animācijai tiek piešķirti četri pavadoņi, un dzīvnieki visu dienu mūk uz pārstādīto tīkkoka lapu lapām, tiek baroti ar cukurniedrēm un tamarindu, un viņiem ir rezervuārs, kur viņi var aizvest savus dzīvniekus. ikdienas vannas. Naktīs viņi guļ savos atsevišķajos paviljonos.

Čadviks atrada dzīvniekus apzeltīta paviljona tumsā, "ķēdes galā šļūcot šurpu turpu, viņa dīvainās gaišās acis vienu brīdi zilas, bet nākamajā - zaļas, vienatnē, kolosāli un, visticamāk, vājprātīgi. Trīs reizes šis lielais trakais zilonis trumpeted wildly in alarm, I was told. Each time the king was threatened by danger, including an attempted coup.←

Determining Royal Thai Elephants

What exactly defines a white elephant is the subject of large body of literature. They are not white or albino. They are rare, light-toned animals that must have a particular set of characteristics to be labeled as white. The criteria to define a white in elephant in Thailand is secret and takes experts weeks to sort out.

The basic requirements for a white elephant are that it must have some “white” skin (pink splotches on the skin), white eyes, a white upper palate, white nails, white fur, white tail hair and a white scrotum. In Thailand white elephants are supposed to be treated with the same respect accord royal children.

By law every white elephant born in Thailand must be presented to the king. Prospective candidates are chosen not only on the basis of pink skin splotches but also on the shape of their trunk and tail, the quality of their vocalizations and even the smell of their dropping. The royal families in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia used to keep white elephants but the custom has largely died out there along with the power of the royal families.

"To an inexperienced man they may look like normal elephants," the overseer of ceremonies at the Royal Palace in Bangkok told National Geographic. "But I have studied them all my life to be able to tell you about their special qualities: a certain shape to their ankles and tail. A whiteness of the eyes, the hair tops, the white skin between folds, and the nails. The greatest of all elephants has two extra toe nails. He is of the same rank as a prince." The name of this cherished elephant has a name four lines long, proclaiming him to be a lotus-colored gift.

Royal Elephant Stories

Stories about white elephants describe them living like Roman emperors on the palace grounds where they were protected from the sun with silk umbrellas and fed fruit on jewel encrusted platters while court musicians entertained them. Young elephants were said to be suckled by human wet nurses.←

A jealous Burmese rulers declared war against Siam when a Thai king refused a request to give the Burmese ruler two of his seven white elephants. In the 17th century, a Dutch chronicler. Described a Thai monarch who staged an elaborate cremation ceremony for the elephant and ordered the execution of any keeper responsible for the death of a baby white elephant.

In the old days the elephants used to walk down the streets of Bangkok every morning on their way to the river for a bath. The only time this routine was changed, according to an old National Geographic article, was during rutting season when male and female elephants were separated. Bangkok's trolley drivers didn't like this because the male elephants often mistook trolleys for female elephants, often taking off after the trolleys and making a big racket and fuss as they did so. Most trolley drivers were skilled and experienced enough to outrun the run the elephants.

In the early 2000s, plans were announced to clone the famous white elephant that belonged to King Rama III, who ruled from 1824 to 1851.

Elephant Polo

Claire Cozens of AFP wrote: Elephant polo is “a game that was dreamt up almost 30 years ago over drinks at a Swiss ski resort and now attracts adventure-seekers from all over the world to Nepal, where the world championships are held every year. The game, loosely based on horse polo, involves two teams of four players sitting astride elephants driven by mahouts, or trainers, who drive them on using oral commands and pressure from their feet. Players carry sticks up to 96 inches (2.5 metres) long to hit the ball towards the opposing goal, with each game comprising two 10-minute chukkas. The umpire sits on the biggest elephant, a huge, long-tusked bull, giving him a bird's-eye view of the game. [Source: Claire Cozens, AFP, December 5, 2010]

“The game can be surprisingly quick, with the smaller, more nimble elephants deployed in attack and the larger ones playing defence, using their bulk to block the goal. And it is taken very seriously by some players. Umpire Yadav Bantawa reports teams using the larger elephants to block his view of illegal moves such as hooking an opponent's stick to prevent him from hitting the ball. [Ibid]

“Dan Bahadur Tamang, who has worked with elephants since 1969, told AFP it wasn't hard to train them to play polo. "They love it. When you watch the game you can see how fast they run towards the ball," he says. "They really know what they're doing now, and they are very clever. They can be taught up to 1,000 oral commands." The elephants are fed at the end of each match and treated to molasses sandwiches to keep their strength up. A team of workers is kept busy throughout each match scurrying onto the pitch to scoop up dung. [Ibid]

“The sport attracts players of all ages and nationalities but like horse polo, this is an expensive sport---the entry fee alone runs into thousands of dollars---and the world championship attracts a wealthy and glamorous crowd.” At the game on Nepal in 2010, “Miss Nepal was joined in the audience by former crown prince Paras, who flew in with a large entourage on his private helicopter to watch a few chukkas. But local people also flock to attend the spectacle, most of them supporting the team put together every year by the park warden and his staff, who work with elephants every day on their patrols and are often among the top performers. "We are so lucky to have a world championship on our doorstep," local farmer Kul Narayan Shrestha told AFP. "It's a really fun day out." [Ibid]

History of Elephant Polo

Scotsman James Manclark, a keen horse polo player who was 71 in 2010, is credited with inventing elephant polo in the 1980s. Claire Cozens of AFP wrote: “He came up with the idea in St Moritz over a drink with Jim Edwards, a pioneer of eco-tourism in Nepal who ran a resort called Tiger Tops deep inside the jungle that used elephants to take guests on safari. Shortly after their encounter, Manclark sent his friend a telegram that read simply: "Arriving April 1 with long sticks. Have elephants ready." "He didn't know whether I was being serious or not. But I arrived, with the sticks and two small footballs, ready to play," Manclark told AFP[Source: Claire Cozens, AFP, December 5, 2010]

The experiment got off to a bad start when the elephants decided it was more fun to stamp on the footballs and burst them than to chase them around the pitch. Fortunately, regular polo balls proved more successful, and elephant polo was born. The World Cup, organised by Tiger Tops, is held every year at a grass airstrip on the edge of Nepal's Chitwan national park, 90 kilometres (56 miles) southwest of Kathmandu.

Official elephant polo games are played three times a year---in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Nepal. In Thailand the games are played with three elephant on each team . In Nepal, which has a larger field, there are four on each team. . Each team member is accompanied by a mahout---or elephant driver -- who steers as the players focus on hitting the ball. The players come from all over the world while the elephants are provided in the place where the game is played. There were 12 national teams competing in 2006 the first year the Americans played. None of the teams has year-round access to elephants. The Germans practice atop Volkswagen vans and have several have internationally recognized horse polo players on their team. [Source: Anthony Faiola, Washington Post, September 10, 2006]

Elephant Polo Game

Describing a game in Nepal, Claire Cozens of AFP wrote: “On a remote jungle airfield in southern Nepal, the tension is rising as the finals of one of the world's most eccentric sporting events goes into extra time at a nailbiting five-all. Within minutes, a giant elephant rumbles towards one end of the field and a cheer goes up from the crowd as a tiny white ball shoots between the goalposts, winning the game for the team from Switzerland. [Source: Claire Cozens, AFP, December 5, 2010]

Describing a game in Thailand, Anthony Faiola wrote in the Washington Post, “During America's debut in the extra-wide world of elephant polo, frustrated U.S. captain Kimberly Zenz nearly screamed herself hoarse. The prime pachyderms toting the rival Italians were dominating the opening match, while Thong Kao-- Zenz's languid charger -- seemed more interested in turning the grassy polo field into an afternoon snack. But as the ball skidded dangerously close to the Italian goal posts, something suddenly seemed to stir from deep inside Thong Kao. She hurled her three-ton bulk toward that ball like Barbaro on steroids. [Source: Anthony Faiola, Washington Post, September 10, 2006]

From the sidelines, international playboys almost choked on their gin and tonics. British aristocrats looked up from their Rolexes, cocking eyebrows with bemusement. For a moment at the King's Cup Elephant Polo Championship -- one of the circuit's Big Three -- it seemed the upstart Yanks from the Washington area might finally charge onto the scoreboard. Then something really did stir from deep inside Thong Kao. She let rip a hail of dung that left the pursuing Italians dodging for cover.

And just as Zenz yanked back her mallet, Thong Kao accidentally stepped on the polo ball, squashing it into the ground and suspending play. It marked the first of many lessons for a team of rookie Americans who came to the emerald hills of the Golden Triangle this week for a crash course in one of the world's most surreal sports.

During one game in Sri Lanka one 2000-kilograms mount went berserk in mid-match and threw off his rider and charged off the field and attacked the Spanish team’s minibus. The vehicle was badly damaged. Fortunately nobody was in it.

Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons

Text Sources: National Geographic, Natural History magazine, Smithsonian magazine, Wikipedia, New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, The Guardian, Top Secret Animal Attack Files website, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, The Economist, BBC, and various books and other publications.


Fearsome War Machines

Having defeated Carthage in the Punic Wars , the Romans too began using war elephants. As an example, the Roman emperor Claudius brought war elephants on his campaign against the Britons, which undoubtedly intimidated the native tribes.

After the fall of the Roman Empire, war elephants became a rarity in Europe and access to these beasts became much more difficult. The use of war elephants, however, continued in the east. As an example, Indian rulers continued employing these beasts, and so too did the Mughal, who invaded the subcontinent during the 16th century.

Battle at Lanka, Ramayana, by Sahib Din. Battle between the armies of Rama and the King of Lanka. Udaipur, 1649-1653. ( Publisks domēns )


The Kingdom of Kerma (2500-1500 BC)

The Kingdom of Kerma was an ancient civilization that existed between 2500 BC and 1500 BC, with its capital at the city of Kerma. It was located in the heart of Sudanese Nubia and is the first provable sub Saharan kingdom to have existed. The Kingdom of Kerma is thought to have existed without a writing system and so all information about this kingdom comes either from archeological proof or sources from Egypt.

Later the kingdom began to be referred as Kerma, and its inhabitants were renowned for being talented warriors and archers. The major occupations of the kingdom included trade, tending livestock, hunting, and fishing. The Kingdom of Kerma existed in three distinct phases – Ancient / Early Kerma (around 2500 BC – 2050 BC), Middle Kerma (around 2050 BC – 1750 BC) and Classic Kerma (around 1750 BC – 1500 BC). Classic Kerma was the golden age of the kingdom. It was during this period that its rulers successfully took control of Egyptian fortresses and gold mines in the Second cataract. The kingdom kept on attacking and capturing Egyptian territories until around 1500 BC Thutmose I attacked Kerma itself and annexed the kingdom into the Egyptian Empire.

The Nubian name for Kerma is Doki which means Red Hill. The city of Kerma itself has been inhabited for 9,500 years. Kerma was ruled by a mixture of a lineage-based elite and priests. The cultural ties between Kerma and Egypt is similar to two regional states within one people.

Origin and Rise to Power

The Kingdom of Kerma, was one of the earliest urban centers in the Nile region. This region had been inhabited from as far back as 5,000 BC, mainly by small fishing villages and trade centres. There is archaeological evidence of a unified culture and kingdom emerging from a conglomeration of these small villages and the proto-Kerma (pre-dynastic) A-Group Culture of 3,800-3,100 BC. This culture and its kingdom was known as the Naqada kingdom. Around the turn of the proto-dynastic period, Naqada, in its bid to conquer and unify the whole Nile valley, seems to have conquered Nubia.

This created a unified kingdom surrounding the area of Nubia. After the fall of the Naqada kingdom in 2700 BC, the Kerma culture took over the area of Nubia, with Kermites spreading out from the city of Kerma. Eventually this culture was the dominant one in the area, and led to the creation of the The Kingdom of Kerma around 2500 BC with the entirety of the area of Nubia under their control.

At this time their northern neighbours, the Egyptians were flourishing as well, and that opened up both trade opportunities, and rivalries in terms of territories for the Kermites. They kept clashing with each other but there were no significant inroads made by either.

After centuries of expanding away from Egypt, the Hyksos invasion of Lower Egypt, around 1786 BC, gave the Kermites an opportunity to extend northward. Hyksos comes from heqa-khase, a phrase meaning “rulers of foreign lands”.

In 1650 BC, Kerma made an alliance with the Hyksos which enabled them to almost double their strength. While the Hyksos ruled Lower Egypt, the Kermites controlled Upper Egypt. The authority of independent Egyptian kings was thus constrained to a little territory around Thebes. The population of Upper Egypt, on the other hand, appeared to have acknowledged the control of Kerma without obstruction. This launched the Kingdom of Kerma into its golden age, wherein it reached the peak of its wealth and power.

Apgabali Under Rule and Administration

In the Kingdom of Kerma’s most prosperous phase, from about 1700–1500 BCE, it absorbed the Sudanese kingdom of Sai and became a sizeable, populous empire rivalling Egypt. This Kingdom covered wide swathes of the great Nile river, covering all of Nubia and Egypt, barring the areas around the city of Thebes, where the Egyptian Pharaohs still held power.

The Kermite Empire was divided into provinces run by a pesto (governor). The pesto had subordinates who served specialized functions. Nubian queens were co-rulers with pharaohs. In some cases, they ruled alone.

Kermite kings worshipped Amun, who was also a key deity to Egyptians. Amun was the god of the sun, and only one of the many in the Egyptian Pantheon. However, Kerma were believers in a single god, and hence had banned the public worship of any other religion or major god in their territory. This excluded the local gods, which were considered minor deities under Amun. Kermite temples for Amun were similar to Egyptian temples, but temples for local gods were constructed differently.

Kerma and Archaeology

Kerma is known among archaeologists for the unique architecture of its metropolis, which reflects an exceptionally high degree of urban organization. The city had its own expanded harbour quarter facing the Nile, thick fortification walls and bastions, royal residence and cemeteries, religious buildings, storehouses, and bakeries.

Moreover, the archaeology of the city indicated that the political structure of the kingdom was more complex than the monocratic political system of ancient Egypt. The archaeology of the cemeteries indicates that magnificent and pompous burials weren’t just reserved for the ruling class, but was made available to all elites, merchants, and anyone with the finances to bear its costs.

Achievements

Among the monumental works believed to have been built during this time is called the Deffufa. The word ‘deffufa’ is either derived from the Nubian term for a mud-brick building or from the Arabic word ‘daffa’, meaning ‘mass’ or ‘pile’. There are three known deffufas, i.e. the western deffufa, the eastern deffufa, and a third lesser-known deffufa.

The Kingdom of Kerma had a very advantageous position when it came to trade in Central Africa. They were situated at the heart of the trade route from western to eastern Africa, and also were the primary controllers of the trade route from central Africa to the Mediterranean. This meant that they were able to exact heavy taxes and tolls from all trade across these routes. This advantageous position in trade is a direct cause for the wealth of the Kerma.

Nubia was known as the land of the bow. Kermite soldiers were expert archers, often lending their services out to train and educate other kingdoms’ armies as well. Their bows were about six feet in length, usually made with palm fiber stretched across different kinds of wood. The arrows were short, fletched with eagle and goose feather, given steel tips. Often the archers also carried a dedicated quiver with poison tipped arrows. The other Kermite weapons were the spear, pike and the Khopesh sword. While the Kermites were expert archers and bow makers, their melee weapons may have been imported. The Kermite military is also credited with the first use of elephants in active combat in warfare, as earlier elephants were only used for transport. They also trained war elephants for export to Egypt.

The Kingdom of Kerma had reached its peak by allying itself with the Hyksos, and using this alliance to attack and annex large parts of the Egyptian Empire. However, the Kermite forces had chosen to not occupy the region, and instead had just looted it and kept it as a tributary. This would prove to be their undoing as in 1532 BC, Ahmose too over the rule as the Pharaoh. He was a brilliant strategist and military leader and under him the Egyptian military flourished again. They eventually launched campaigns to retake the lands that had been lost to Hyksos and Kermites. In 1548 BC they went to war with the main Hyksos forces and won.

After the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose vanquished the Hyksos in 1550 BC, he directed his concentration toward Kerma. Ahmose needed to overcome Kerma with the goal for him to guarantee power over Upper Egypt. The war with the Kermites went on for a long time, with wins and losses on both the sides.

Persistent invasions of nomadic groups in the peripheries of Kerma debilitated the Kermite kingdom. By 1500 BC, the Kermites were overpowered and were crushed by the attacking Egyptian armed forces under the Pharaoh Thutmose I.

The territories and people of the kingdom were annexed and absorbed into the Egyptian Empire, and that signalled the end of the Kingdom of Kerma.

The people of Kerma would in future reconquer Egypt to become the 25 th dynasty Pharoahs.

Török,László(1997). The kingdom of Kerma: handbook of the Napatan-Meriotic civilization, Part 1, Volume 31. Brill

A. Lobban Jr. Historical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Nubia. (Scarecrow P, 2003).

L. Haynes. Nubia: Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. (Acme Printing Company, 1992).

Hirst, K. K., 2015. Kerma – Ancient African Capital, Opponent to Egyptian Pharaohs.


Horse in Ancient Egypt

The horse is not native to ancient Egyptians and the exact date of its introduction to the country is not certain. The horse is believed to have come to Egypt with the Hyksos around 1600BC, who settled in the Nile Delta from the Levant, looking for grazing land for their cattle. By 1700BC these new settlers had been in the area, marrying the native women, for long enough that they could take political control. The Hyksos founded their own fortified capital in the Delta, controlling Memphis and forging alliances with kingdom of Kush, while the Egyptian kings retained control of Thebes. The Hyksos proved very difficult to expel from Egypt due to their competence with the horse and chariot, a method of warfare that the Egyptians had previously barely come into contact with.

But this was only so if they could fight on a level battlefield. The lightweight, high-speed chariots they utilized became very dangerous on all but the flattest terrain and a group of charging horses can rapidly become uncontrollable, potentially putting the passengers in a great deal of danger.

The Ancient Egyptian Horse and Chariot

The chariots used by the Egyptians were lightweight, fast vehicles with two wheels, drawn by two horses. Within each chariot rode two men, the driver and the fighter. It is thought that initially the chariot was used as transport for the aristocracy and also for hunting.

Since the turnover of chariot horses was likely to be very high, it is probable that a large stock of breeding horses were kept, to make sure there was a constant supply for battle. In the early years of the presence of the horse in Egypt, it is highly likely that horses were too precious to risk, so until stock increased horses were used very carefully.

The Horse and the Ancient Egyptian Elite

The horse soon became a much loved and prized possession for the Egyptian elite, particularly the Pharaoh. The horses first introduced to Egypt are smaller than those we are used to today, and had features similar to those of the Arab breed. Yoke measurements from chariots found in tombs give the horses an average height of 1.35m at the withers, or 13.2hh. However these animals could measure up to 1.50m, or 15hh.

Ramses II mentions his horses in the Poem of Kadesh, acknowledging them for their part in the battle of Kadesh. This in itself might seem a strange thing the Pharaoh rarely shared the credit for a victory with another human, so why should such praise fall upon horses?

Relief showing Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh.

“I defeated millions of foreign countries, being alone, being on ‘Victory in Thebes’ and ‘Mut is Contented’ my great horses. They it is whom I found to support me when I was alone fighting many foreign countries… They it is whom I found in the midst of the battle together with the charioteer Menna my shield bearer…”

The Value of the Horse to the Ancient Egyptians

It appears that horses were also ridden. However, it is thought that a chariot would offer more dignity than riding, especially as those on-board were less likely to fall off. The representations show horsemen riding with a bridle and reins, and sometimes a cloth to sit on, but no saddle and stirrups.

However, the horse was not used for draught work. It would be about two millennia before horses would replace oxen as work animals. This was partly due to the horse collar not having been invented, and the yoke collar was unsuitable due to the position it sat in. Also the Egyptians valued the speed of the horse too much to put it to work immediately.

The horse came to Egypt at the pinnacle of the history of the country. Ancient Egypt had her largest empire and greatest power, and this was increased by the addition of the horse and chariot to Egyptian warfare. Although the horse arrived in Egypt too late to be included in the pantheon, it proved vital in other areas, especially with regards to wealth and status, and proved its worth for years to come.


The Mauryan Empire Military

Chandragupta governed a true monarchical imperial state. The king ruled with the help of a small body of elder statesmen, the mantri-parisad, that functioned as advisors. These included the great councilor, or mantrin the purohita, or chief priest the treasurer, or sannidhatr the chief tax collector, samahartr the minister of military affairs, sandhivigrahika the senapati, or chief military advisor or general and the chief secretary, or mahaksapatalika. Below this council, the state was governed on a day-to-day basis through powerful individuals, called superintendents, who oversaw various government departments. The military system itself was controlled by high-ranking civilian superintendents who oversaw the operations of state armories, where all military equipment and weapons were manufactured, as well as supply depots, cavalry, elephants, chariot corps, and infantry, including provisions, training, and general combat readiness. According to Megasthenes, the Seleucid ambassador to Ashoka’s court, the imperial army was run by a committee of thirty of these superintendents, while each branch or department-infantry, cavalry, elephants, chariots, navy, commissariat, and so on-was run by a committee of five men. It is likely that these committees reported directly to the chief military man, the senapati, who then reported to the king.

There were six types of troops in the Mauryan imperial army: the ksatriya, or troops of the hereditary warrior class who formed the spine of the professional army mercenaries and freebooters hired as individuals seeking military adventure troops provided by corporations or guilds troops supplied by subordinate allies deserters from the enemy and wild forest and hill tribesmen used in the same manner as the French and British used Native American tribes in their wars in North America. The troops of the corporations are little understood and may have been units maintained by guilds to guard their caravan routes and trade stations. Such units were later found in the armies of medieval Europe. The imperial armies were not conscript armies. In Vedic times, war fighting was the responsibility of all members of the tribe. By the time of the Mauryas, whatever sort of conscription had once existed earlier had disappeared, and the imperial armies comprised professional warrior aristocrats and other professionals fed, equipped, trained, paid, and otherwise maintained at great cost to the state.

The Mauryan army was quite large. Classical sources (Pliny) state that the size of the army of the last Nanda king was 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 2,000 chariots, and 3,000 elephants when it was overwhelmed by Chandragupta’s force of 600,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 9,000 elephants. When Alexander confronted Porus on the banks of the Hydaspes, he faced an army of 30,000 foot, 4,000 cavalry, 300 chariots, and 200 war elephants, an army of considerable size to be deployed by a minor king of a minor state in the Jhelum region. Less than a year later, Alexander confronted the army of the Malavas state, another minor regional entity, and faced an army of 80,000 well-equipped infantry, 10,000 cavalry, and 800 chariots. Even accounting for the exaggeration common in ancient accounts, it is by no means unlikely that these armies were this large. The population of India during this period was somewhere between 120,000,000 and 180,000,000 people. Even excluding the lower social orders, the Mauryan empire possessed an enormous manpower pool. Moreover, India was rich in gold and metals and the skills to produce weapons in great quantities in state armories. The Ganges plain and other areas farther north were excellent for breeding mounts for the cavalry. Whatever the true size of the imperial armies, they are all recorded as smaller than those said to have existed during the later medieval and Muslim periods of Indian history.

The tactical organization of the Mauryan army may have been influenced somewhat by the Chinese innovation of combining several combat arms within a single tactical unit and training it to fight together, employing their arms in concert. Indian armies of this period had within them a basic unit called the patti, a mixed platoon comprising one elephant carrying three archers or spearman and a mahout, three horse cavalrymen armed with javelins, round buckler, and spear, and five infantry soldiers armed with shield and broadsword or bow. This twelve-man unit when assembled in three units formed a senamukha, or “company.” Three of these formed together comprised a gulma, or “battalion.” Units were added in multiples of three, forming an aksauhini, or “army,” comprised of 21,870 patti. Sources also speak of military units formed around multiples of ten, and there were no doubt units of single arms that could be employed individually or in concert with other arms. The Arthasastra mentions a unit called the samavyuha, or “battle array,” that was about the size of a Roman legion (5,000 men). This unit comprised five subunits joined together, each subunit containing 45 chariots, 45 elephants, 225 cavalry, and 675 infantrymen each. It goes without saying that managing such units in battle required a high degree of tactical sophistication.

The military equipment of the Mauryan imperial army was essentially the same as it had been for the previous 500 years. The Indian bow was made of bamboo and was between five and six feet long and fi red a long cane arrow with a metal or bone tip. Nearchus, the Cretan chronicler who accompanied Alexander into India, noted that the bowman had to rest the bow on the ground and steady it with his left foot in order to draw it full length. The arrow fi red from the bamboo bow could penetrate any armor. At the Hydaspes the battle took place over muddy ground, which prevented the archers from steadying their bows in this manner, rendering them useless. The composite bow, or sarnga, was also used but probably far less so and not by cavalry. When Alexander’s Asian cavalry archers at the Hydaspes attacked the Indian cavalry with bow and arrow, the Indian cavalry took heavy losses and had no means of returning fi re. It is unlikely that the Indian cavalry ever became proficient with the bow, relying completely on the lance and javelin, the weapons of light cavalry. If the Mauryan army possessed heavy cavalry, they appear to have done so in small numbers.

Infantrymen carried a long, narrow shield made of raw ox hide stretched over a wooden or wicker frame that protected almost the entire body, unlike the small round buckler carried by the cavalry. Armed with spear, bow, and javelin, the infantry tended mostly to be of the light variety. Heavy infantry carried the nistrimsa, or long, two-handed slashing sword, while others were armed with iron maces, dagger axes, battle axes, and clubs. A special long lance, the tomara, was carried by infantry mounted on the backs of elephants and was used to counter any enemy infantry that had fought its way through the elephant’s infantry screen to attack the animal itself. What evidence we have suggests that from Vedic times until the coming of the Greeks, only slight use was made of body armor, and most of that was of the leather or textile variety. With Alexander’s invasion, however, the use of metal and lamellar armor became more widespread, as did the use of scale plate armor for horses and elephants. The helmet did not come into wide use until well after the Common Era, and for most of the ancient period the Indian soldier relied mostly on the thick folds of his turban to protect his head.

By the Mauryan period the Indians possessed most of the ancient world’s siege and artillery equipment, including catapults, ballistas, battering rams, and other siege engines. A distinguishing characteristic of Indian siege and artillery practice was a heavy reliance on incendiary devices, such as fire arrows, pitch pots, and fireballs. There was even a manual instructing how to equip birds and monkeys with the ability to carry fire inside buildings and onto rooftops. This was not surprising in a country whose military fortifications and buildings were made mostly of wood. Fire was such a constant threat to Indian towns that thousands of water containers and buckets were required to be kept full and placed outside dwellings at all times to extinguish fi res. All citizens were required by law to assist in fighting fi res, and it was required that people sleep in the room nearest the street exit to escape fi re more easily and to be quickly available to help in fighting them. So serious was the concern for fi re that the punishment for arson was death by burning alive.

The Arthasastra declares that a good army can march two yojanas a day and that a bad army can only manage one. This is a rate of march for an effective army of about ten miles a day, considerably below what the armies of the Near East could manage during the same period. It is likely that the Mauryan army followed the old Vedic practice of agreeing with the enemy as to the location of a battlefield in advance. Under these conditions, tactical surprise was likely to have been a rare event. Much of the advice offered by the Arthasastra, at least from the tactical perspective, seems to be of the same variety as that proffered by Sun-Tsu, more a set of maxims designed to make the commander think than a set of rules to be applied in certain circumstances. That is why, to the Western mind, such maxims often appear obvious. Hints of a tactical system appear, however, in the suggestion that whether the attack is from the center, right, or left, it should always be led by the strongest troops. The weakest troops are to be kept in reserve. But the reserve is very important. The king should always station himself with the reserve to exploit any enemy failure, and a king should “never fight without a reserve.”

TĀLĀKA LASĪŠANA Basham, A. L. The Wonder That Was India: A Study of the History and Culture of the Indian Sub-continent Before the Coming of the Muslims. New York: Grove Press, 1959. Bhatia, H. S. Vedic and Aryan India. Delhi: Deep and Deep, 2001. Bradford, Alfred S. With Arrow, Sword, and Spear: A History of Warfare in the Ancient World. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001. The Cambridge History of India. Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 1968. Dikshitar, V. R. Ramachandra. War in Ancient India. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1987. Jackson, A. V. Williams. History of India. London: Grolier Society, 1906. Prasad, S. N., ed. Historical Perspectives of Warfare in India. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2002. Sandhu, Gurcharn Singh. A Military History of Ancient India. Delhi: Vision Books, 2000. Singh, Sarva Daman. Ancient Indian Warfare. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1997. Smith, Vincent Arthur. The Oxford History of India. 3rd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958. Thapar, Romila. A History of India. Middlesex, UK: Penguin Books, 1966.


Early tourists visiting the Pyramids and the ruins of Ancient Egypt, 1860-1930

By the late eighteenth century, Egypt had been reduced to nothing more than an impoverished and neglected corner of the Ottoman Empire, crippled by endless power struggles among its Mamluk leadership.

Then in 1798, Napoleon arrived at the head of a French army, closely followed by the British, who had hitherto shown little interest in Egypt. After the French retreat, Egypt became gradually Westernised under the Albanian Ottoman Muhammad Ali Pasha, so that by the time the English novelist Thackeray visited Alexandria in 1845, the Nile ‘was lined with steel mills’ and looked ‘scarcely Eastern at all’.

Egypt’s early tourism trade started in the 19th century and increased in popularity alongside the rise of Egyptology as an academic and amateur pursuit. Especially, after the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, it became much easier to visit Egypt.

Organized group holidays offering an all-inclusive price that reduced the travelers’ costs were an innovation of the 1840s. Thomas Cook (1808-1892), a brilliant entrepreneur from England, is seen as their inventor and thus the pioneer of commercialized mass tourism.

In the 1870s, Cook offered his famous tour of Palestine and the Nile, a way for wealthy people to explore the wonders of Ancient Egypt. Many of these tourists took pictures in front of the ancient ruins or the Great Sphinx, some of them even climbed all the way to the top of the pyramids.

Scores of photographers, seeking to establish their studios, began arriving in Egypt following the tourist gaze. They hauled heavy equipment across the desert to photograph the wonders of the Nile Valley. Some opened studios in the larger cities where they sold their wares to tourists a few were engaged by Egyptologists to document excavations. Travelers exploring the monuments of ancient Egypt could return home with souvenir photographs of the sights they encountered.

For Europeans, Egypt and Egyptian history offered a more vivid and exotic picture of the ancient world than probably any other culture. With a history covering over 3,000 years, dynasties of pharaohs lasting for centuries, and extraordinary figures like Alexander, Cleopatra, and Tutankhamun illuminating the story, this is hardly surprising.

The pictures collected here are part of a collection documenting the British occupation of Egypt and show the early tourists exploring the ruins of Ancient Egypt.

Britsh tourists in front of the Great Sphinx. 1910.

The ruins of Ancient Egypt. 1905.

Some of the more adventuresome tourists were determined to see the view from the top of the 455-foot Pyramid of Cheops.

The Prince of Wales and the Duke of Gloucester climb one of the pyramids. 1930.

British tourists in Egypt. 1895.

Egyptians and tourists clamber up one of the pyramids. 1880.

The smooth white limestone which had once encased the pyramid had long since been torn off for use in buildings in Cairo, leaving the massive structural blocks for tourists and local guides to clamber over. 1930.

Locals helping a tourist climbing the pyramid. 1860.

With the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, visits by wealthy tourists increased. 1900.

A lady climbing the pyramid. 1900.

It was quite a challenge to climb the pyramid! (1867)

Men rest atop the Great Pyramid. 1900.

Photographer Lewis Larsson composes a photo from atop the Great Pyramid. 1900.

A view from the top of the pyramid. 1900.

Egyptian men watch as the Graf Zeppelin floats over the pyramids of Giza. 1931.


A lot of time and effort was required to build these beautiful pyramids, each one averaging about two centuries. About 138 pyramids were built in ancient Egypt and their beauty lies not only in their construction but also in the phenomenal amount of thought that went into their positioning in relation to the stars.

The Egyptians believed that their pharaohs should be buried along with their treasure and sometimes even their slaves. Hence gold, jewelry, clothes etc were put in the tombs with the mummies. However, over the years, rulers of other kingdoms have destroyed the pyramids and taken these jewels and valuables back to their own respective kingdoms. Although the pyramids are very hard to damage, smaller pyramids were targeted, and their riches plundered. One such example of this can be seen in the Great Pyramid of Giza. There is evidence of a failed break-in and the deep hole that was made in the pyramid’s structure is still visible today.

The construction of these pyramids is just so incredible that much research has gone into how to make equivalently strong structures today. The mortar used is still unknown, and scientists have not even been able to determine where the mortar came from.

It is astonishing that the ancient Egyptians could create buildings with such precision, and this careful, intelligent level of construction can be seen in other monuments in Egypt as well, not just the pyramids. Without the help of machinery, and even before the invention of the wheel, they achieved as much as modern man is able to today. It is also possible to see progression in their building techniques when you compare the earlier pyramids to the later models, such as in the fine polishing of the exteriors.

Saistītās ziņas:

3 thoughts on &ldquoTop 10 Fascinating Facts about the Egyptian Pyramids&rdquo

The Pyramids of Egypt The sphinx is the gateway to finding the hidden chambers within the great Pyramid. There is much knowledge stored within their, you have heard of the great library of Alexandria that was destroyed by the zealous early Christians. They destroyed much of everything under within that great Pyramid within the chamber that is indeed under the sand. You see much sand has built up over the many many centuries, if the entire base was cleared completely you would see that there was much more, much has been covered by the sand over the time, Those chambers would lie under the sand, and the sphinx is indeed the doorway, to reaching it.

I think I was told in Egypt that the pyramids were buried in sand and were only discovered when the sand was blown away a long time after they were built. It seems unlikely that something that huge could be covered in sand, but I’d like to know for sure!

There are so many types of Pyramids. Wha you menrioned is true. There are such kind pyramids in Mexico. They are under ground and discovered recently.


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