Informācija

Edvards Holms


Edvards Holms bija ārsts Mančestrā. Dr Holme 1818. gada 22. maijā intervēja Lorda Kenija Lordu palātas komiteja.

Jautājums: Cik ilgi esat praktizējis kā ārsts Mančestrā?

Atbilde: divdesmit četri gadi.

Jautājums: Vai jums Mančestrā ir bijusi iespēja apmeklēt kādas publiskas iestādes?

Atbilde: Esmu ārstu galvenajās medicīnas iestādēs. Medicīnas iestādes, ar kurām man ir saistība un kas pastāv jau divdesmit četrus gadus, ir Mančestras slimnīca, ambulance, Mēness slimnīca un patvērums, kā arī Atveseļošanās nams.

Jautājums: Vai tas ir devis jums iespējas novērot to bērnu stāvokli, kuri parasti tiek nodarbināti kokvilnas rūpnīcās.

Atbilde: Ir.

Jautājums: Kādā veselības stāvoklī jūs atradāt nodarbinātās personas?

Atbilde: Viņiem kopumā bija laba veselība. Ja vēlaties, es varu sniegt jums sīkāku informāciju par Pūlija kunga rūpnīcu. Viņš nodarbina 401 darbinieku; un no 1796. gadā pārbaudītajām personām tika konstatēts, ka 22 ir smalkas izpausmes, 2 tika ierakstītas kā slimas, 3 - ar sliktu veselību, viena bija pakļauta krampjiem, 8 skrofulozes gadījumi: ar labu veselību, 363.

Jautājums: Vai, lai jūs saprastu, no jūsu 1796. gada izmeklēšanas jūs izveidojāt diezgan labvēlīgu viedokli par kokvilnas rūpnīcās strādājošo veselību.

Atbilde: Jā.

Jautājums: Vai jums kopš tā laika ir bijusi iespēja šo viedokli mainīt?

Atbilde: Nekas. Viņi ir tikpat veselīgi kā jebkura cita sabiedrības darba šķiru daļa.

Jautājums: Ja bērni ilgu laiku būtu pārslogoti, vai tas, jūsuprāt, kā ārsts, ietekmētu viņu veselību tā, lai būtu kaut kādā veidā redzams?

Atbilde: neapšaubāmi; ja bērns vienā dienā būtu pārslogots, tas lielā mērā padarītu viņu nespējīgu veikt savu darbu nākamajā dienā; un, ja prakse tiktu turpināta ilgāku laiku, tad noteiktā laikā viņa veselība tiktu pilnībā iznīcināta.

Jautājums: Tad jums ir jāsaprot, ka, ņemot vērā bērnu vispārējo veselību kokvilnas rūpnīcās, jums vajadzētu veidot viedokli, ka viņi nav strādājuši pāri savām fiziskajām spējām?

Atbilde: Noteikti nē.

Jautājums: Jūsu novērojuma rezultāts neliecināja par izaugsmes pārbaudi, kas izriet no viņu nodarbinātības.

Atbilde: Tā nebija.

Jautājums: Vai jūs atļautu, piemēram, astoņus gadus vecu bērnu turēt stāvus divpadsmit stundas dienā?

Atbilde: Es neatnācu šeit, lai atbildētu, ko es darītu, ja man būtu savi bērni.

Jautājums: Vai, jūsuprāt, kā mediķis, bērnam būtu kaitīgi, ja viņš, ēdot maltīti, joprojām būtu iesaistīts darbā, par kuru viņš gatavojās?

Atbilde: Šie ir jautājumi, uz kuriem man šķiet ļoti grūti atbildēt.

Jautājums: Kas pieteicās pie jums, lai jūs pārbaudītu šos bērnus Pūlija kunga rūpnīcā?

Atbilde: Pūlija kungs.

Jautājums: Pieņemsim, ka es jums uzdodu šo jautājumu. Ja bērni tika nodarbināti divpadsmit, trīspadsmit, četrpadsmit, piecpadsmit stundas no divdesmit četrām, vai jums vajadzētu domāt, ka tas veicina smalka bērna veselību?

Atbilde: Mans secinājums būtu šāds: redzētie bērni bija veseli; ja viņi būtu nodarbināti šo desmit, divpadsmit vai četrpadsmit stundu laikā un izskatītos veselīgi, es tomēr teiktu, ka tas nekaitēja viņu veselībai.


Nacionālās biogrāfijas vārdnīca, 1885-1900/Holme, Edvards

HOLME, EDVARDS (1770–1847), ārsts, Tomasa Holmes dēls, zemnieks un tirgotājs, dzimis Kendalā, Vestmorelendā, 1770. gada 17. februārī. Pēc Sedbergas skolas apmeklēšanas viņš divus gadus pavadīja Mančestras akadēmijā un pēc tam studējis Getingenas un Edinburgas universitātēs. Viņš pabeidza doktora grādu Līdenē 1793. gada decembrī, viņa disertācija “De Structura et Usu Vasorum Absorbentium” aizņem sešdesmit vienu lappusi. 1794. gada sākumā viņš sāka praktizēt Mančestrā un neilgi pēc tam tika ievēlēts par vienu no ārstiem slimnīcā. Viņš pievienojās Literāro un filozofisko biedrībai, apmetoties uz dzīvi Mančestrā, un bija viens no tās viceprezidentiem no 1797. līdz 1844. gadam, kad viņš kļuva par doktoru Džonu Daltonu kā prezidents. Viņš bija viens no Portico bibliotēkas dibinātājiem un divdesmit astoņus gadus tās prezidents. Viņš bija arī Mančestras Dabas vēstures biedrības un Čethemas biedrības dibinātājs un pirmais prezidents. Viņš bija pirmais Britu asociācijas medicīnas nodaļas prezidents tās atklāšanas sanāksmē Jorkā (1831) un 1836. gadā vadīja Provinces medicīnas un ķirurģijas asociāciju. Viņš kļuva par Linneas biedrības biedru 1799. gadā. gados, īpaši pēc Džona Ferriara nāves [q. v.], savas profesijas līderis Mančestrā un atzīts vadītājs visās vietējās literārajās un zinātniskajās sabiedrībās.

No četrpadsmit esejām, ko sniedza Literārā un filozofiskā biedrība, viņš publicēja tikai īsu “Piezīmi par romiešu uzrakstu Mančestrā” (Mančestras memuāri, sēj.). Pēc viņa nāves tika izdrukāta vēl viena eseja “Par tēlniecības vēsturi līdz Fidiasa laikam”.

Viņš nomira neprecējies 1847. gada 28. novembrī Mančestrā, atstājot īpašumu vairāk nekā 50 000 vērtībāl., kuru lielāko daļu viņš atstāja kopā ar savu lielo bibliotēku Londonas Universitātes koledžas medicīnas nodaļai. Viņa portretu iegravēja J. R. Džeksons, no V. Skota gleznas, kas pieder Mančestras literārajai un filozofiskajai biedrībai.

[Dr W. C. Henry memuāri grāmatā Trans. no provinces med. un Surg. Asoc. 1848, xvi. 77 Manchester Guardian, 1847. gada 1., 4., 8. decembris, 1848. gada 26. janvāris, 13. maijs, 10. jūnijs. 116 Univ. Coll. Bibliotēkas kaķis. 1879.]


903/904 - Holmes kauja

Tiek uzskatīts, ka Holme ir kaujas vieta, kas notika 903. vai 904. gadā pilsoņu kara laikā starp diviem pretendentiem uz Veseksas troni pēc Alfrēda Lielā nāves. Viņa dēls Edvards vecākais ieņēma Veseksas troni, bet Alfrēda vecākā brāļa dēls Utvelolds apstrīdēja viņa prasību.

902. gadā Æthelwolds ar floti ieradās Eseksā, un nākamajā gadā viņš pierunāja Austrumanglijas dāņus uzbrukt anglosakšu Mercijas un Veseksas karaļvalstīm. Edvards atriebās, izpostot Austrumangliju, un Dānijas armija bija spiesta atgriezties, lai aizstāvētu savu teritoriju. Pēc tam Edvards atkāpās pa Lielo Ziemeļu ceļu, bet Kentas vīri paklīda. Æthelwold un dāņi viņus panāca, un domājams, ka viņi vajāja viņus pa Glatton Lane līdz Fen malai Holme. Viņiem neizdevās aizbēgt, un turpmākajā kaujā tika nogalināts gan Æthelwold, gan Kentish līderis. Lai gan dāņi uzvarēja kaujā, tas izbeidza brutālo pilsoņu karu dienvidos.

Dr Hart, bijušais Yaxley GP un vietējais vēsturnieks, bija pirmais, kas ierosināja, ka šeit notika Holmes kauja. Nav simtprocentīgi pārliecināts, ka šī bija ne vietne, ne precīzs datums, taču daudzi vēsturnieki, šķiet, atzīst, ka no viduslaiku vēsturnieka Henrija Hantingdona apraksta, ka Holme, visticamāk, būs šī vieta.


Cīņa

Uhtreds cīnās Holmā

Rietumsaksi armija Edvarda un Uhtreda vadībā uzsāka kauju ar Dānijas aizmuguri Hasteina pakļautībā, pirms kaujas uzsākšanas izšaujot bultas. Tūkstošiem dāņu un nemiernieku sakšu metās pāri upei, starp kuriem bija arī Beorhtsige. Sākotnēji Rietumsaksi ieguva pārsvaru, un Uhtreds pēc īsa dueļa nogalināja Sigurda Torsona jauno dēlu Sigurdu Sigurdsonu, pirms nosita Eohrica čempionu Osketilu, iedūra viņam caur cirksni. Tad Uhtreds lika saviem vīriem veidot vairoga sienu, un viņš pēc tam kliedza apvainojumus Eohricam, apsūdzot viņu gļēvulībā. Finan turpināja nogalināt nodevēju Beorhtsige vienu kaujā. Dāņi pārsvaru ieguva drīz pēc tam, tomēr šķērsoja grāvi un izveidoja jaunu vairoga sienu. Knuts, dzirdēdams kaujas kliedzienus no aizmugures, vadīja pārējo armiju cīņā pret Rietumsaksu uzbrucējiem. Eohriks tika nogalināts grāvī, un Uhtreds uzlauza kaklu, pirms dāņi varēja atgūt viņa ķermeni. Aethelwold iedvesmojās, kad Sigebriht un viņa Kentish  fyrd  ieradās, un viņš teica Hasteinam, ka ir izpildījis savu solījumu. Tomēr Sigebrihts pastāstīja saviem vīriem, ka viņi cīnās par saviem priekštečiem un Veseksu, un viņš uzsāka cīņu pret vikingiem, galu galā izrādot lojalitāti Veseksai pār dāņiem. Knuts nogalināja Sigebritu ar šķēpu, bet Kentišas karaspēks pagrieza kaujas gaitu. Kad Hasteins secināja, ka dāņi ir zaudējuši kaujā, Ethelvolds mēģināja bēgt, taču pirms nokļūšanas viņš nokrita no zirga, un Uhtreds viņu stūra un nogalināja. Vikingu armijai tika nodarīta spēcīga sakāve, un Edvards tika apstiprināts par Veseksas karali.


Palīdzība: Alfrēds Lielais un nemiernieku brāļadēls

10. gadsimta mijā karaļa Alfrēda rūpīgi izstrādāto karalisko dinastiju gandrīz sagrāva vērienīgais princis Æthelwold. Raiens Lavelle apraksta asiņainu pilsoņu karu, kas sadalīja anglosakšu Anglijas varenāko ģimeni

Šis konkurss tagad ir slēgts

Publicēts: 2020. gada 27. aprīlī pulksten 12:30

899. gada 26. oktobris anglosakšu Veseksas karalistei bija melnā piektdiena. Alfrēds Lielais bija miris. Lai dzīvo karalis. Bet kurš karalis? Saskaņā ar daudzām vēsturēm, Alfrēdam sekoja viņa dēls Edvards, vēlāk pazīstams kā Edvards “vecākais”. Bet pēc Alfrēda nāves pirmais bija viņa brāļadēls Æthelwold ‘aetheling’ - tas nozīmē ‘princis’, kurš izvirzīja savu prasību uz Veseksas troni, iebrūkot tagadējā miegainajā Dorsetas pilsētā Vimbornas Minsterē. Tur, saskaņā ar anglosakšu hroniku, viņš aizvēra vārtus, paziņojot, ka “tur dzīvos vai mirs”, un sagrāba mūķeni, iespējams, ar nolūku viņu apprecēt. Tā bija sacelšanās, karaliskā stilā.

Helthelwold sacelšanās šodien ir maz zināma, tā ir tikai zemsvītras piezīme anglosakšu vēsturē. Neskatoties uz neticamu stāstu, tas ir svarīgi divu iemeslu dēļ. Tas liek domāt, ka, neskatoties uz Alfrēda nepārspējamo reputāciju kā anglosakšu Anglijas glābēju, viņa dinastijai bija ievērojama opozīcija ne tikai savā valstībā, bet arī visā Britu salu teritorijā. Tas arī norāda, ka, ja Æthelwoldam būtu mazliet vairāk laimes Alfrēda nāves rezultātā un ja vienai neskaidrai cīņai 902. gadā būtu alternatīvs iznākums, Anglijas nākotne patiešām varētu būt pavisam citāda.

Alfrēda Lielā nāve 899. gada oktobrī diez vai varēja būt pārsteigums. Astoņdesmito gadu sākumā Alfrēda biogrāfs Asers rakstīja par mokošo slimību, kas, domājams, bija Krona slimība, kas piemeklēja karali pēdējos gados. Attiecīgi Edvards Vecākais bija sagatavots uzņemties vainagu. Bet viņš nebija vienīgais karaliskās ģimenes loceklis, kura idejas par varas izmantošanu bija Veseksā. Helthelwold pretendēja uz troni, pateicoties viņa tēvam, ķēniņam Æthelred I. I. helthelred bija Alfrēda vecākais brālis un kā tāds valdīja karaļvalsti pirms Alfrēda, no 865. līdz 871. gadam. Kad redthelred nomira, viņa dēli tika uzskatīti par pārāk jauniem, lai gūtu panākumus. Alfrēds ieņēma troni.

Vai vēlaties lasīt vairāk 4. sezonas apskatu un uzzināt vēl vairāk par patiesajiem vēstures notikumiem, kas iedvesmoja drāmu? Lasiet vairāk no ekspertiem mūsu kuratētajā lapā Pēdējā valstība

Sadalīta valstība

HelThelreda dēli nebija īpaši apķērīgi par šo varas nodošanu no vienas ģimenes daļas uz otru. Šķiet, ka saspīlējums starp valdošā klana pusēm - Alfrēdu un Æthelredu - pazuda visā Alfrēda valdīšanas laikā. Astoņdesmitajos gados Alfrēds stāstīja, ka viņa “jaunie radinieki” - iespējams, Džethelolds un viņa brālis Uthelms - ir apstrīdējuši viņa gribas versiju. Par karaļa īpašuma sadali tika karsti apstrīdēts.

Alfrēda reakcija uz šo ģimenes ķildu bija pasludināt savu dēlu par viņa pēcteci: 890. gadu hartā Edvards ir ierakstīts kā rex (“Karalis”) līdzās tēvam. Tas bija izšķirošs - daži varētu teikt - nežēlīgs - solis no Alfrēda puses, jo viņš centās nodibināt karalisko dinastiju no bērniem, kas bija laulībā ar muižnieci Ealšvitu. Bet, ja mērķis bija nodrošināt ātru un bez asinīm pēctecību, tas iespaidīgi neizdevās.

PĒDĒJĀ KARALISTE 4. SEZONAS PĀRSKATI (SARAKSTS ATJAUNINĀTS KATRU DIENU):

Tas kļuva pārāk acīmredzams, kad, kā mums stāsta anglosakšu hronika, helthelwold ieņēma Vimbornas un Kraistčērčas īpašumus, abi tagad atrodas Dorsetā. Lai gan mēs daudz nezinām par Kraistčērču, izņemot to, ka tā bija a burhvai nocietināta apmetne, šajā laikā Vimborai bija nozīme. Tas bija nozīmīgs karaliskais īpašums un vieta, kur tika apglabāts helthelwold tēvs, karalis Æthelred. Ja, šķiet, ticams, ka helthelwolds ātri rīkotos pēc Alfrēda nāves, viņš būtu sitis vēlu rudenī, kad raža bija savākta un krājumi bija gatavi ķēniņam, viņam virzoties ap savu valstību. Vikingi to darīja praktiskā nolūkā, lai pabarotu sevi, bet helthelwoldam Vimbnoras sagrābšana nozīmēja, ka viņš varētu apgalvot, ka viņš ir likumīgais ēdiena un dzēriena saņēmējs, kas rezervēts ķēniņam, kas pazīstams kā “vienas nakts saimniecība”.

Æthelwold motivācija izmantot Wimborne bija arī stratēģiska. Veseksa bija sadalīta valstība, un viens no šiem sadalījumiem bija starp austrumu pusi (kas ietvēra Vinčesteras karalisko centru) un rietumus. Vimbors gulēja tieši pie šīs kļūmes līnijas, un, cik mēs varam pateikt, Æthelwold atbalstītāji bija uz rietumiem no tās. Viņa darbība varēja būt paredzēta, lai izveidotu jaunu valstības sadalījumu.

Anglosakšu hronikas autors dara visu iespējamo, lai Æthelwold rīcību pasniegtu kā nelikumīgu, salīdzinot to ar astotā gadsimta uzurpara ieņemto karalisko rezidenci. Bet neatkarīgi no tā, kādu vērienu uzsāka Edvarda atbalstītāji, tas bija vairāk nekā nelielas vietējas grūtības. Veseksas nākotne tagad bija patiešām laba.

HelThelwold roku, iespējams, ir stiprinājis neliels, bet ievērojams muižnieku mazākums, kurš izjuta nepatiku pret mirušo karali. Mēs zinām par Viltšīras ealdormanu jeb galveno ierēdni vārdā Vulfere, kurš Alfrēda valdīšanas laikā zaudēja zemi, jo bija pametis ķēniņu. Iespējams, ka šī spriedze atkal radās nemieros Alfrēda dzīves beigās. Galu galā tas bija periods, kad jauni vikingu uzbrukumi, kurus veica karavīri, kas tikko iegūti no kontinentālās Eiropas kampaņām, radīja ievērojamus draudus Veseksai. Ja, kā šķiet ticams, wthelwold pārdzīvoja savu brāli kā ķēniņa helthelred I pēcteci, karaliskais nemiernieks varēja paļauties uz kādu atbalstu viņa lietā. Ne visi bija ieradušies Alfreda skatījumā uz Veseksas karalisko ģimeni.

Edvards reaģēja uz helthelwold's Wimborne gambitu ātri un atklāj daudz par to, kā viņš un viņa māsa helthelflæd darbotos tā dēvētā Danelaw "iekarošanas" laikā pēc dažiem gadiem. Viņš paņēma tuvējo dzelzs laikmeta pilskalnu Badbury Rings, apmetot tur savu armiju. Bādberija bija politiskās sapulces vieta, tāpēc Edvarda rīcība bija veids, kā parādīt, ka viņam pašam ir zināma likumība valstībā. Turot rokās Badberijas gredzenus, Edvards varētu apturēt Æthelwold pārvietošanos tālāk uz ziemeļiem uz Mersiju - bloķējot iespējamo ceļu uz Vinčesteru. Kāds meistarīgs trieciens bija pārbaudījis karalisko izlikšanos. Anglosakšu hronikas piezīme, ka wthelwold “naktī nozaga”, iespējams, nebija tālu no patiesības.

Karaliska atklāšana

Helthelwold tomēr nebija par grāfu. Viņš devās uz Nortumbrijas valstību, kur, kā atzīst viena hronikas versija, vikingi tur “pieņēma viņu par karali un uzticējās viņam”. Cita versija pat sauc Æthelwold par “pagānu karali”. Vikingi daudzus savus vadītājus dēvēja par “ķēniņiem”, un Æthelwold varētu būt viens no tiem. Šobrīd reta Jorkas monēta, kurā ierakstīts ALVVALDUS REX nosaukums (attēlā zemāk), varētu liecināt, ka viņš tika uztverts nopietni.

Rietumsakšu hronisti bija norūpējušies par helthelwold aliansi ar vikingiem, taču kara taktika nebija nekas neparasts. Ir pamatots iemesls aizdomām, ka Alfrēds, ja to prasa apstākļi, ir arī sabiedrojies ar vikingu algotņiem. Tātad, ja Æthelwold apvienoja spēkus ar nortumbriešiem un dāņiem, viņš bija labā sabiedrībā.

Lai kāda būtu Æthelwold vikingu alianses morāle, šķiet, ka tas noteikti iedvesa jaunu dzīvību viņa kampaņai, lai sagrābtu Veseksu - divus gadus vēlāk viņš atgriezās, un šoreiz bēgšana nenotiks.

Otrā un izšķirošā Æthelwold sacelšanās daļa sākās 901. gadā, kad viņš ar floti aizbrauca uz Eseksu, kas bija vikingu apmetnes vieta. Lūk, hronika stāsta, ka helthelwold saņēma iesniegumu. 902. gada vēlā rudenī vai ziemas sākumā viņš devās uz Mersiju, apvienojoties ar atdalītajiem Merciāna karaliskās ģimenes locekļiem. Bet atgriešanās Veseksā vienmēr bija kartēs, un neilgi pēc tam viņš šķērsoja Temzu atpakaļ savā vecajā valstībā Kriklade cietoksnī. Šeit viņš sāka izpostīt karaliskās zemes šajā apgabalā.

Edvardam nebija citas izvēles, kā vien reaģēt uz šo provokāciju, un viņš to arī izdarīja, nosūtot armiju uzbrukt Dānijas Austrumanglijai, kas ir vēl viena no helthelwold cietokšņiem. Tas, kas notika tālāk, nav pilnīgi skaidrs, taču šķiet, ka Æthelwold lielā alianse panāca Edvarda izlaupītās armijas aizmugures sargu tagad neidentificētā vietā, ko sauc par “Holme”. viņa karaspēks.

Hronika stāsta par Holmu, ka vikingu spēki “turēja kaušanas vietu”. Citiem vārdiem sakot, viņi uzvarēja. Bet viņi arī zaudēja visvairāk vīriešu - un nogalināto vidū bija Æthelwold etetheling.

Trīs gadus Veseksas karalisti satricināja Æthelwold vardarbīgā opozīcija Edvardam Vecākajam, viņa spēcīgā pretenzija uz troni un spēja savākt atbalstu no visas Anglijas. Helthelwold sacelšanās bija radījis varenus draudus pēctecības līnijai, ko iezīmēja Alfrēds. Bet tagad Æthelwolds bija miris, un viņa sacelšanās bija beigusies.

Tā vietā, lai turpinātu dominēt Veseksā un varbūt izveidot savu dinastiju, šim neveiksmīgajam 10. gadsimta Anglijas princim bija lemts tumsonībā. Tagad posms bija skaidrs Alfrēda Lielā pēctečiem, lai valdītu augstāk.

Raiens Lavelle ir lasītājs agrīnajos viduslaiku vēsturē Vinčesteras universitātē. Viņa grāmatas ietver Cnut: Ziemeļjūras karalis (Allen Lane, 2017).


Reja pilsētas vēstures emuārs

Edvards un#8220Neds un#8221 HOLMS, bija 25. Gruzijas pulka karavīrs, kurš dalīja garnizona pienākumus ar Berrien Minute Men un 29. Gruzijas pulku vairākās nometnēs ap Savannu, GA, 1862. gada pavasarī un vasarā. Jūnijā 25. pulka pulkvedis Klaudijs C Vilsons uzņemsies komandas Causton ’s Bluff vadību, kur atradās Berrien Minute Men.

Neds Holmss dzimis aptuveni 1834. gadā DeKalb apgabalā, Džordžijā, jaunākais no diviem Džeimsa un Martas Tūrmenas Holmsas dēliem.

Neda tēvs Džeimss Holmss, saskaņā ar ģimenes tradīcijām, atstāja ģimeni Atlantā, lai dotos uz rietumiem, lai meklētu zemi saimniecībai. Viņš vairs nebija dzirdēts no … Ned ’ brāļa Maika Holmsa kā vecākā dēla, bija vienīgais viņa ģimenes atbalsts un domājams strādāja par pārraugu, lai viņus atbalstītu. Atkal ģimenes leģenda vēsta, ka Maiks brauca ar uzvarētāju zirgu sacensībās Atlantā, kura maciņš viņam bija pietiekams, lai pārvietotu māti, piecas māsas un Nedu uz Alabamu. Apmēram 1845. gadā ģimene pārcēlās uz Henrija grāfisti, AL, apmetoties netālu no Veslija, aptuveni 7 jūdzes uz ziemeļaustrumiem no Abbeville. – Gordons V. Holmss, jaunākais

Henrija apgabalā Maiks Holmss vispirms strādāja par zemnieku, pēc tam 1858. gadā tika ievēlēts par Henrija apgabala šerifu kā demokrāts. Līdz 1860. gadam Neds Holmss kļuva par pārraugu un pārcēlās no brāļa mājsaimniecības uz savu vietu Franklinā, AL.

Kad sākās pilsoņu karš, Maiks Holmss 1861. gada 11. maijā ieslēdzās Abbeville, AL, komandā A (kļuva par uzņēmumu B), 6. pulkā, Alabamas kājniekos, CSA.

Edvards “Neds un#8221 Holmsu 1862. gada 12. aprīlī Henrija apgabalā Alabamas štatā uz 3 gadiem ieņēma kapteinis Džordžs Holmss (bez radniecības), komandā E, 25. pulks, Džordžijas kājnieki, CSA. Neds palika mājās atvaļinājumā līdz 1862. gada aprīļa beigām. Maijā viņš pievienojās savai vienībai Smitas nometnē netālu no Savannas, Džordžijas štatā. Pēc pievienošanās 25. pulkam Neds Holmss cietīs no lipīgām slimībām.

Pulkvedis Klaudijs C. Vilsons no Džordžijas 29. pulka savāca petīciju, kurā lūdza glābt Elberta Dž. Čepmena dzīvību.

Divdesmit piektais Gruzijas brīvprātīgo pulka pulks tika organizēts 1861. gada vasarā. Klaudijs C. Vilsons, Džordžijas advokātu kolēģijas loceklis un bijušais ģenerālprokurors Gruzijas austrumu apgabalā, tika ievēlēts par pulkvedi un pasūtīja vienības pirmo komandieri. Vienība tika iekļauta konfederācijas dienestā Savannā, Džordžijā, 1861. gada septembra sākumā. Divdesmit piektais pēc aprīkošanas un urbšanas tika norīkots Dienvidkarolīnas, Džordžijas un Floridas departamentam, kā arī 1861. gada otrajā pusē un 1862. gada laikā. kalpoja Gruzijas un Dienvidkarolīnas piekrastē. Līdz 1862. gada septembrim 25. Džordžijas pulks kalpos kopā ar 29. pulku Kaustonā un#8217s Bluffā, uz austrumiem no Savannas, ASV. Sākotnējie pulka virsnieki bija: Viljams Pērsijs Morfords Ešlijs, pulkvežleitnants Viljams Džons Vins, majors Rufuss Ecēhiēls Lesters, adjutants un Viljams Delegals Bekons, kvarteta meistars. Kapteiņi bija Aleksandrs V. Smits, uzņēmums A Martin L. Bryan, uzņēmums B Jefferson Roberts, uzņēmums C Andrew J. Williams, Company D William Sanford Norman, Company E George T. Dunham, Company F William D. Hamilton, Company G W Henry Wylly, Company H Alexander Hamilton “Hamp ” Smith, Company I, [pēckara Valdostas iedzīvotājs, GA] Marks Džeksons Makmullens, kompānija K, Roberts Džeimss Makklārijs, uzņēmums L.

Laikā, kad Neds Holmss pievienojās pulkam 1862. gada maijā, 25. Gruzija jau bija nostrādājusi astoņus mēnešus savannas apkaimē: Vilsonas nometnē ar 27., 31. un 29. Džordžijas pulku Camp Young Thunderbolt Battery Camp Mercer Tybee salā un Camp Smith .

Lielākā daļa 25. pulka jau bija cietušas no daudzām infekcijas slimībām. “Fakts, ka lielākā daļa karavīru bija no lauku kopienām, padarīja viņus ļoti uzņēmīgus pret tādām “pilsētas slimībām” kā masalas, vējbakas un mazās bakas. Mirstība no šīm slimībām bija ļoti augsta. Federālajās armijās slimības un slimības izraisīja 7 no katriem 10 nāves gadījumiem. Viena iestāde ir aprēķinājusi, ka starp konfederātiem trīs cilvēki gāja bojā no slimības par katru kaujā nogalināto vīrieti. Neliels brīnums, ka pilsoņu kara karavīrs savulaik no nometnes uzrakstīja savu ģimeni: “Tas šeit līdz nāvei biedē vīrieti.” – Pilsoņu karš

Īzaks Gordons Bredvels, Džordžijas 31. pulka kareivis Vilsona nometnē, rakstīja: ” “Mēs nebijām bijuši šajās nometnēs daudzas dienas pirms masalu iebrukuma, kas bija visu jauno karavīru biedējošais ienaidnieks, un daudzi mūsu vīri nomira vai tika padarīti nederīgi turpmākai kalpošanai. Citas slimības atšķaidīja mūsu rindas, un kādu laiku viņu vietā ieradās daži jaunievēlētie. ” Kad ieradās jauni darbinieki, piemēram, Neds Holmss, ar masalām var saslimt dažu dienu laikā pēc vīriešu ierašanās. Masalas bija smagi skārušas Džordžijas 29. pulku un Berrien Minute Men 1861. gada decembrī Camp Security. William Washington Knight rakstīja no Camp Security, “Gandrīz visiem mūsu uzņēmumiem ir masalas. Kapteinis [Džons C.] Lambam ir, un#8221 kopā ar 60 citiem pulka dalībniekiem. Viljams A. Džonss ar masalām devās mājās uz Bērnijas apgabalu, Džordžijas štatā, un nomira tur 1862. gada janvārī, pēc nāves dzimušais dēls cieta no acīmredzama iedzimta masaliņu sindroma.

Neds Holmss 1862. gada 7. jūnijā rakstīja mājās no Smita nometnes, stāstot ģimenei, ka viņam ir ļoti slikts saaukstēšanās un klepus, un 25. pulkā ir daudz slimību. Līdz 1862. gada 11. jūnijam viņš rakstīja, ka ir slims ar masalām.

“Masalu [Rubeola] infekcija notiek secīgās stadijās divu līdz trīs nedēļu laikā. Pirmās 10 līdz 14 dienas pēc inficēšanās masalu vīruss inkubējas. Šajā laikā nav masalu pazīmju vai simptomu. Masalu simptomi parasti sākas ar vieglu vai mērenu drudzi, ko bieži pavada ilgstošs klepus, iesnas, acu iekaisums (konjunktivīts) un iekaisis kakls. Šī salīdzinoši vieglā slimība var ilgt divas vai trīs dienas. Mutes iekšpusē uz vaiga iekšējās oderes veidojas mazi balti plankumi ar zilgani baltiem centriem uz sarkana fona-tos sauc arī par Koplik ’s plankumiem. Izsitumi uz ādas veidojas no lieliem, plakaniem plankumiem, kas bieži ieplūst viens otrā. Dažu nākamo dienu laikā izsitumi izplatās pa rokām un stumbru, tad virs augšstilbiem, apakšstilbiem un pēdām. Tajā pašā laikā drudzis strauji paaugstinās, bieži vien pat no 104 līdz 105,8 F (40 līdz 41 C). Masalu izsitumi pamazām atkāpjas, vispirms izzūdot no sejas un pēdējā no augšstilbiem un kājām. Persona ar masalām var izplatīt vīrusu citiem apmēram astoņas dienas, sākot no četrām dienām pirms izsitumu parādīšanās un beidzot, kad izsitumi ir bijuši četras dienas. ”- Mayo Clinic

1862. gada jūnijā 25. pulka pulkvedim Klaudijam C. Vilsonam tika uzticēts īpašs pienākums kā priekšniekam Kaustonas un#8217s Bluff komandā. No blefa, kas atrodas aptuveni trīs jūdzes uz austrumiem no Savannas, paveras skats uz St Augustine Creek un Whitemarsh Island (izrunā Whitmarsh Island). "Šis divdesmit līdz trīsdesmit pēdu blefs stratēģiski pavēlēja aizmugurējo pieeju Fort Džeksonam pie Savannas upes un pieeju pilsētas austrumu līniju daļai." Kopš 1861. gada decembra Kjūstonas Blefu garnizēja 13. Džordžijas kājnieki, kas pazīstami arī kā Bartovas vieglie kājnieki, pulkveža Mārcela Duglasa vadībā. Pēc tam, kad ASV armija 1862. gada 11. aprīlī ieņēma Pulaski fortu, Berrien Minute Men un 29. Gruzijas pulks tika audzināti, lai stiprinātu garnizonu. Drīz 25. pulks pārcēlās uz augšu no Smita nometnes, lai pievienotos garnizonam Kjūstonas un#8217s Bluff. Causton's Bluff vīrieši cieš no drudža, malārijas, masalām, tonsilīta, parotīta, brūcēm, tīfa, dizentērijas, pneimonijas, tuberkulozes, sifilisa, hepatīta un reimatisma, kā arī ar odiem, blusām un smilšu mušām.

Vēstulē brālim Neds Holmss rakstīja, ka viņam ir izvilkti rīki no vecās nometnes un#8221 un ka viņš ir slims ar cūciņu.

Agri no rīta, 1862. gada 20. jūnijā

Maiks,
Tā kā es vakar neizkāpu no savas vēstules, es jums šorīt uzrakstu dažas rindiņas. Šorīt jūtos ļoti labi. Šorīt esmu spēcīga ar cūciņām, bet tās man nesāp. Es labi rūpējos par sevi. Varbūt jūs domājat, ka es to nevaru darīt nometnē, bet mana telts ir tikpat sausa kā jebkura māja. Pagājušajā naktī mums bija 2 diezgan stipras vētras un spēcīgs lietus, un es nekad nejutu ūdens pilienu vai vēja brāzmu. Vakar man izdevās dabūt gultu no vecās nometnes. Tā ir tik laba gulta kā mājās. Es domāju, ka tagad es visu laiku uzlabošos. Es gribu, lai tu man uzraksti. Es neesmu dzirdējis no jums, kopš jūs bijāt ceļā uz Ričmondu. Es nezinu, kā man patiks mūsu gājiens. Kopš ierados šajā vietā, es neesmu bijis ārā. Es zinu tikai to, ka mēs esam nometnē.
Saki Sim ’s ļaudīm, ka viņam ir labi. Dikam [Naitam] ir laba veselība. Noteikti rakstiet drīz. Diks no mājām saņēma vēstules, kurās teikts, ka Rūbens Flemings ir nogādāts mājās. Es gribu par to dzirdēt.

Neds

Saskaņā ar CDC, “Mumps ir lipīga slimība, ko izraisa vīruss. Simptomi parasti parādās 16-18 dienas pēc inficēšanās, bet šis periods var svārstīties no 12 līdz 25 dienām pēc inficēšanās. Tas parasti sākas ar dažu dienu drudzi, galvassāpēm, muskuļu sāpēm, nogurumu un apetītes zudumu. Tad lielākajai daļai cilvēku būs siekalu dziedzeru pietūkums. Tas izraisa vaigu pietūkumu un žokļa pietūkumu. Dažiem cilvēkiem, kuriem ir cūciņa, ir ļoti viegli simptomi (piemēram, saaukstēšanās) vai tie nav vispār, un viņi, iespējams, nezina, ka viņiem ir šī slimība. Cūciņas dažkārt var izraisīt komplikācijas, īpaši pieaugušajiem. Vīriešiem komplikācijas var būt: sēklinieku iekaisums (orhīts) vīriešiem, kas sasnieguši pubertāti, tas var izraisīt sēklinieku izmēra samazināšanos (sēklinieku atrofija) iekaisums aizkuņģa dziedzerī (pankreatīts) smadzeņu iekaisums (encefalīts) audi, kas aptver smadzenes un muguras smadzenes (meningīts) kurlums. Nav pierādīts, ka cūciņu izraisīts sēklinieku iekaisums izraisa neauglību. ” – CDC
Cūciņas parasti ilgst apmēram desmit dienas.

Apmēram laikā, kad Neds Holmss atveseļojās no cūciņām, viņš rakstīja, ka ir slims ar caureju.

1862. gada 30. jūnijs

Dārgais Maik
Es atkārtoju jūsu vēstuli, kas datēta ar 26. Man bija prieks dzirdēt, ka jums viss ir kārtībā. Man nav tik labi, kā es, kad tevi ieraudzīju. Pirms 2 dienām manas zarnas bija nedaudz nepareizas, taču tās nebija sliktas, bet pietiekami, lai saglabātu nedēļu un nespētu neko darīt. Es visu laiku esmu augšā, bet man nav spēka kaut ko darīt. Jums nav jāuztraucas par mani, ja es kļūstu slikti slims, es jums to paziņošu. Domāju, ka varēšu pildīt pienākumus vienas vai divu dienu laikā. Pastāstiet Marijai, ka viņai nav jāuztraucas par mani, ka es varu atgriezties mājās, ja man būs ļoti slikti un es to darīšu. Slims vīrietis ir ļoti nomācošs un šeit var saņemt atvaļinājumu. Es to tagad negribu, nav jēgas doties mājās. Es tagad neiešu, ja man būtu atvaļinājums. Es jums uzrakstīšu visas daļiņas, kuras es varu savākt dažu dienu laikā. Es rakstu katru otro dienu. Es to darīšu, līdz es saņemšu plūmju labi. Morisam un Simmam Šikiem un Zukam viss ir kārtībā. Pašlaik man vairs nav ko rakstīt.

Rakstiet man bieži.

E. [Neds] Holmss

Jūlijā Neds Holmss rakstīja, ka cieta no masalu recidīva. Pilsoņu kara laikos maz tika nošķirta masalas (Rubeola) un masaliņas, ko dažkārt dēvē par Vācijas masalām. Šķiet, ka Ned ’s “s recidīvs ” varēja būt masaliņas. Ned ’s vēstules no 1862. gada jūlija norāda, ka viņš ir atgriezies Camp Smith, lai atgūtu spēkus. Karavīri, kuri saslima, priekšroku deva aprūpei nometnes slimnīcā vai slimības nodaļā, nevis nosūtīšanai uz slimnīcu Savannā.

Slimnīcas Savannā kareivji baidījās kā nāves nami. Lai kliedētu šīs bailes, pulkvežleitnants Andersons [Savannah River Batteries komandieris] izveidoja atsevišķu slimnīcu Deptfordā. Mazāk kritiski slimos varētu tur nosūtīt, viņu biedri noskatīties, un viņiem nebūtu nozagtas visas personīgās mantas - kas notiktu, kad viņus nosūtītu Savannā. – Fort Džeksona skaidrojošie materiāli

Bet pat atveseļošanās laikā Smita nometnē Neds Holmss atklāja, ka viņa personīgie priekšmeti tiek sūtīti.

Camp Smith, Savanna, Ga., 1862. gada jūlijs

(Matam un ģimenei)
Man likās, ka es ar masalām noteikti biju labi līdz vakardienai, bija mākoņaina slapja diena, un masalas uz manis parādījās tikpat vienkāršas kā jebkad. Šorīt tas ir notīrīts, un izskatās pēc septembra. Tas ir vēss un patīkams, gaiss maisa īsu laiku un ir ļoti patīkams laiks. Es pabeigšu to no rīta un pastāstīšu, kā man iet. Dikam ir cūciņa. He took them yesterday. I hope he will get well soon. Tell Mama somebody has stolen one of my socks and I have an old one and if she sees any chance to send me one, to do it. I shall get out of socks before long anyway.

“Rubella, also called German measles or three-day measles, is a contagious viral infection best known by its distinctive red rash. Rubella is not the same as measles (rubeola), though the two illnesses do share some characteristics, including the red rash. However, rubella is caused by a different virus than measles, and is neither as infectious nor usually as severe as measles. The signs and symptoms of rubella are often so mild they’re difficult to notice, especially in children. If signs and symptoms do occur, they generally appear between two and three weeks after exposure to the virus. They typically last about one to five days and may include: Mild fever of 102 F (38.9 C) or lower Headache Stuffy or runny nose Inflamed, red eyes Enlarged, tender lymph nodes at the base of the skull, the back of the neck and behind the ears A fine, pink rash that begins on the face and quickly spreads to the trunk and then the arms and legs, before disappearing in the same sequence.” – Mayo Clinic.

July the 6th [Camp Smith]

My health is improving now again finally. If I can keep mending 2 or 3 days more as I have for 2 days I will be well. I have quit discharging blood, have not discharged any in 30 hours & my bowels feel like they are getting well & they are not moving more than 4 times a day. I think today I will be much better than usual. We have most pleasant weather here now I ever saw at this season. It’s clear and cool and the wind stirring like fall of the year. I had almost concluded there was no Yankees about here till I heard them shooting on the 4th. There is plenty of cannon whether there are any Yankees with it or not. I suppose they fired some 2 hundred big guns at 1 o’clock at 2 or 3 different points. I have nothing else to write. Thomas Doswell has just this minute come into camp. I want to see him right soon. get my watch home.

I remain,

Neds

By August Ned’s health was improved. He returned to his unit at Causton’s Bluff and on August 26, 1862 was elected Junior 2nd Lieutenant. On August 10, 1862, Ned Holmes wrote a letter home to his family.

Camp Costons Bluff,[Near Savannah] Aug. 10, 1862

Dear Mat and Viney,
I write you a few lines that leaves me about well except my mouth. I never was in such a fix with fever blisters before. I received a letter from you, Santanna just a few minutes ago. Alex Gamble is going to start home tonight. I will send this by him. I think my fever is broken entirely up. I have not had any since Friday morning so I feel as well as I did before I was taken. There is a deal good of sickness around —– but they are also not dying as fast as they were ten or fifteen days ago. There is a heap of heavy shooting going on today in the direction of Fort Pulaski. I don’t know what it means.

They are fixing up a volunteer company right now to go to Wilmington Island, a place we have never scouted.
It’s beyond Whitemarsh and from where we are camped and on the way to Fort Pulaski. I don’t know what information they expect to obtain by going to Wilmington. It’s all under the General of the Fort [Pulaski, captured by U.S. Army forces from Tybee Island on April 11, 1862,] and they never expect to hold it unless the fort is retaken which will never be done for there is nothing here to take it with. Morris is well. Miles is getting well. John Nobles is right sick. Washer Nobles came into our company this morning to stay. I may get off home when Sim gets back. Es nezinu. Everbody has been here longer than I have. I will be there by the first of September anyway if I keep well. And I am not afraid of being sick anymore this summer.

Love, Ned

P.S. Tell Mike if there are any of Cook’s pills there to send me some. And I can manage my own cases.

In September 1862 Ned Holmes was on detached duty. He was later reported as “wholly incompetent & probably physically unfit to hold office.

In 1863, Ned Holmes and the 25th Georgia Regiment would be sent to north Mississippi, forming part of the army assembled for the relief of Vicksburg. The The Berrien Minute Men and the 29th Georgia Regiment were also sent to join that effort.


Edward the Elder (c. AD 874-924)

Edward was the son of Alfred the Great, born to Alfred and his queen Ealhswith of Mercia around AD 874. His moniker 'the Elder' does not come from the fact that he was Alfred's eldest son and heir, but was used by historians to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.

According to the contemporary historian Asser, who wrote a biography of Alfred the Great's life, Edward and his youngest sister Aelfthryth were educated at Alfred's court, by both male and female tutors, who taught them to read both ecclesiastical and secular prose in English, including Old English poetry and the Psalms. They were also taught behaviour considered worthy of the court, such as humility and gentleness. The upbringing of Edward and Aelfthryth is unique the only known example of a Saxon prince and princess receiving the same education.

Though he was the eldest son of the king, Edward's accession to the throne was not assured, for by Saxon custom a strong and able relative could have an equally valid claim to the throne. His uncles Aethelhelm and Aethelwold had claims to the throne, for they were older and the sons of Alfred's elder brother Aethelred, who had reigned before him. Aethelhelm appears to have died sometime around 850, but Aethelwold survived, and seems to have been regarded as higher in status.

Alfred the Great did everything he could to assure his own son's inheritance he may have made Edward King of Kent during his lifetime. He promoted men who would support Edward, and had Edward accompany him on royal journeys, where he witnessed many of Alfred's charters. Alfred also seems to have given Edward military commands. We know that in AD 893 Edward commanded an army against the Vikings at the Battle of Farnham.

Around 893 Edward married Ecgwynn, of whom almost nothing is known, though she may have been a relative of St Dunstan. Together they had 2 children, a son named Aethelstan, who would become king after Edward's death, and a daughter who married Sihtric, the Viking king of Northumbria. Ecgwynn probably died around 899, for shortly after this Edward married for a second time, to Aefflaed, daughter of an ealdorman of Wiltshire.

King Alfred the Great died on 26 October 899, and Edward succeeded to the throne, taking the title King of the Anglo-Saxons like his father before him. Edward's first hurdle was the rebellion of his cousin, Aethelwold, whose claim to the throne was through his father, Aethelred. Aethelwold seized royal estates and encamped at Wimborne in Dorset. Edward raised an army and marched to nearby Badbury Rings.

Aethelwold declared that he would live or die at Wimborne, but it was an empty threat, for he stole away in the dead of night and made his way to Northumbria, where he was acclaimed as king. He sailed back to Wessex in 901 with an army. Each side gained and lost territory for a year, until Aethelwold was killed while defeating a wayward portion of Edward's army at the Battle of the Holme in 902. Thus ended the only real threat to Edward's throne.

Edward treated with the Danes in 906, but the truce was broken after a regime change in York. A separate group of Vikings from Britanny also raided along the Severn. From 909, Edward began a successful counterattack, with the help of his sister Aethelflaeda, who, as the widow of the Mercian king, controlled her own army.

While she reconquered and fortified the Severn area and Western Mercia, Edward did the same in East Anglia. By 918, the sibling rulers had pushed the Vikings back across the Humber. Aethelflaeda struck the crowning blow by taking York peacefully, the inhabitants themselves fearing Viking raiders and hoping for protection. The city was lost again in 919, after Aethelflaeda's death.

Edward continued to press north, in 920 fortifying Nottingham and Bakewell. After this show of power, he was accepted as overlord by the rulers of Northumbria, including York, Wales, Strathclyde, and the Scots. The 'submission' to Edward has been reinterpreted by many modern historians as a simple peace treaty rather than an acknowledgement of Edwards overlordship.

Edward also controlled Mercia through his niece, Elfwina. He continued the policy launched by his sister Aethelflaeda of building fortified towns, or burhs, throughout Mercia, with new burhs begun at Rhuddlan, Thelwall, and Manchester. He appears to have organised Mercia and the eastern Danelaw into shires. His assertion of control over Mercian affairs was not universally welcomed, and he was forced to put down a revolt at Chester in 919.

Edward had at least 13 children, 3 of whom ruled England after his death (Aethelstan, Edmund, and Eadred). His daughter Eadburh entered Nunnaminster abbey at Winchester, founded by Alfred the Great's wife Ealhswith. She died in 960 and was canonized as a saint in 972, and her cult flourished into the 14th century.

Edward himself founded a monastery beside Winchester Cathedral, dubbed the New Minster to distinguish it from the existing monastery. Edward may have been motivated to found his new minster because he was at odds with the monks of the Old Minster, and its Bishop, Denewulf.

This New Minster was probably meant as a royal mausoleum. Edward moved his father's body from the Cathedral (the Old Minster) to the new, and buried his mother there as well as the relics of St Judoc and St Grimbald. Edward was buried in the New Minster as was his son Aelfweard and his brother Aethelweard.

One of Edward's legacies was the practice of trial by ordeal. Though the concept existed long before his reign, the law code issued by Edward made trial by ordeal the only remedy for a proven charge of perjury.

Edward died at Farndon, near Chester, in 924, of wounds gained quelling the Chester revolt. He was buried in the New Minster at Winchester. Edward's successor was his son Aethelstan (often modernised as Athelstan).

Edward the Elder's Legacy

Historians were generally favourable towards Edward's reign. He was considered inferior in learning to his father Alfred but his equal or even superior in military might. He ruled an expanding territory in the south of England for a quarter-century, asserting a strong central authority over the realm. The Danish threat was met and the Danish leaders brought to heel.

He helped organise the political structure of England with shires administered by shire-reeves, regional courts, and a centralised royal system of taxation. Though often overlooked by history, Edward the Elder can be said to have done as much as any ruler in laying the foundations of medieval England.


Edward Holme - History

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In 1688, three local noblemen, the Earl of Devonshire, Earl of Danby un Mr John D'Arcy met at Whittington disguised as a hunting party, to begin planning their part in the overthrow of Džeimss II. A rainstorm sent them seeking shelter to the Cock and Pynot alehouse.

IT is a strange tradition that sees Guy Fawkes celebrated as the main character in what is the most famous act of treason in our national history.

Fawkes (whose first name was actually Guido) – is the man who is immortalised in the story of the gunpowder plot, and whose effigy is cast on to bonfire’s the country over – was actually just one of many conspirators following the lead of a man named Robert Catesby.

The legend could as easily have belonged to Derbyshire’s own Robert Keyes, who like Guy Fawkes was responsible for guarding the gunpowder, and who was also executed for his part in the plot.

Staveley-born Keyes was the sixth man to join the conspiracy, which sought to assassinate King James I by blowing up the House of Lords on November 5, 1605.

The thwarted event, which brought Fawkes four centuries of notoriety, left Robert Keyes with little renown, even in his native county.Guy Fawkes was just the one who has gone down in history. Fawkes was used as a scapegoat.

Robert Keyes is incredibly important to Staveley and alot of people don’t realise he was involved.

Robert Keyes was born in Staveley in 1565, the son of Edward Keyes, the town’s protestant rector. By the time he joined the conspiracy in Oct 1604, aged 40, he had converted to Catholicism, and sought to murder King James I, who was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland.

His job, was to take charge of Robert Catesby’s home in Lambeth, south London, where the gunpowder was stored.

When Fawkes was arrested after being found guarding 36 barrels of gunpowder under the Houses of Parliament, Keyes fled for the Midlands, but was caught on November 9, in Warwickshire. His punishment was to be hanged, drawn and quartered.

Plans have been unveiled to rebuild part of the walls of what is thought to have been one of England's largest medieval keeps.

Duffield Castle was destroyed by King Henry III in 1266 and all that remains today are its foundations. The National Trust, which manages the site in Derbyshire, wants archaeologists to reveal how it looked.

Annice Fuller from DerwentWISE project, working alongside the trust, said the castle was of national importance. She said the castle, which is barely visible from the roadside, has been "nearly forgotten about".

"It's a scheduled monument and it forms an integral part of the history of Duffield," she said.


“Thomas Barker lawfull son of Valentine Barker and his Wife Ann of Holme was born on the 12th day of August in ye year 1747, was baptizd and died the same day.” Mr. Gillow (The Catholic Registers of Holme-on-Spalding Moor – Publications of the Catholic Record Society Volume 4)

“Thomas Garstang lawfull son of Thomas Garstang and his Wife Ann of Holme was born on the 30th Day of August in ye year 1747 and was baptizd the same day. He had for Godfather Mr Thomas Vavasour of Willowtoft, and for Gomother Mrs Ann Gibson of Lendale in York, represented by Jonathan Hopwood and Mrs Ann Gorsuch.” Mr. Gillow (The Catholic Registers of Holme-on-Spalding Moor – Publications of the Catholic Record Society Volume 4)


The History and Topography of the Parish of Kirkburton and of the Graveship of Holme (1861) - Township of Burton Otherwise Kirkburton

In Domesday Book “Bertone” is surveyed as a member of the Soke of Wakefield, consisting of three carucates. It was then part of the Terra Regis, and returned as waste. When this great fee was granted to Earl Warren, Burton was soon after given to one of his retainers, who took the surname of Burton, or “de Birton.” The family were of considerable importance here  Dr. Whitaker states, “they may be traced as Lords of this Manor, to the highest period of local names.” The name frequently occurs in charter evidences, either as principals or as witnesses.

A Nicholas de Birton was a witness to a charter in the 6 Edward I., [1277,] wherein Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, confirms certain privileges to the burgesses of Pontefract. Ώ ]

We find that the early lords of Burton were also lords of Gunthwaite, which they had acquired, probably in the reign of Henry III., or not later than Edward I.  but not long after this it appears to have vested again in the de Gunthwaites  for in 1359 John de Gunthwaite gave to Thomas Bossvile de Erdesley and his heirs, his estate and Manor of Gunthwaite. In these transactions of the Burtons with the Gunthwaites, we have Nicholas de Byrton, Henry de Byrton, his son, who had Roger de Byrton. ΐ ]

This Nicholas de Byrton was a person of some consequence, as he appears to have held the office of seneschal, or steward, of Blackburnshire, under Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. Henry de Birton appears as a witness to a deed, without date, from Matthew de Oxspring to Roger del Hyde, about the reign of Henry III., or Edward I. Α]

Elias de Byrton appears as a witness to a charter, bearing date 1284, from John de Carlton to Elias de Midhope. Β] This Elias de Byrton was probably nephew to Sir Elias de Midhope.

“Elias de Midhope had two sisters not named in the genealogy. They married, one the Lord of Thurgoland, the other the Lord of Burton, (Kirkburton,) in the Wapentake of Agbrig. On the death of Elias John de Thurgoland, son of the one, and William de Burton, grandson to the other, claimed to be heirs of Elias de Midhope, on the ground that his issue were illegitimate. The question came to a hearing, and of the pleadings we have an abstract by Dodsworth. It appears from them, that in 1252, Sir Elias had entered into a covenant to marry Maud, a daughter of Richard Gramary, (Grammaticus, a family who had considerable possessions along the line of the Aire,) but that marriage was never completed, and she became the wife of Robert de Stapleton, of Thorp Stapleton, while Sir Elias married Mabilia, a daughter of Josceline de Swainsby. The marriage with Mabilia was contracted in the face of the church, and without any contradiction of the said Maud, or of any other person, and she lived fifteen years at Midhope as his wife, and there died in peace, and was buried in the parish church of the said Elias, at Ecclesfield. But eight years after the death of Mabilia, Robert de Stapleton being also dead, Maud perceiving, as the pleadings say, Elias de Midhope to be rich, came and challenged him for the conditional contract he had entered into with her. Elias replied that the contract was only conditional, and the conditions not having been fulfilled, the contract was null, when John D’Eyvile, of Adlingflete, the discontented baron, who was concerned in the burning of Sheffield, uncle to Maud, and other persons of her lineage, seized upon Elias, carried him to York, and there compelled him to marry her in the Chapel of St. James, without the walls, without sentence or judgment.”

“The determination upon this cause I have not seen,” says Mr. Hunter, “but it may be presumed to have been in favour of the son, as he succeeded to the inheritance, as did his posterity after him. There is a quit-claim in 1329, from John de Thurgoland, of all the lands which were Elias de Midhope’s, which may be connected with this transaction.”

Mr. Hunter’s South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 364.

There was a William de Burton in 1304, presented to the Rectory of High Hoyland, of the first mediety, by Sir Thomas de Burgh. Γ] The name also of William de Burton appears in several charters connected with this parish, from Edward I’s. reign to 1335.

In the 32 Edward III., [1359,] Elias de Burton, Lord of Burton, and John de Dronfield, Lord of West Bretton, obtain a royal license, that they might give the Advowson of the church of Penistone to the Dean and College of the Free Chapel of St. Stephens, Westminster. Δ ]

In the 8 Henry IV., [1406,] “Elias de Byrton Armiger” occurs as a witness to a charter. A John de Birton occurs also as a witness to a charter, dated 24 Henry VT., [1445,] and again in a charter dated 27 Henry VI., [1448].

In 1455, Thomas Burton gave his daughter, Isabel, with certain lands, in marriage to Edmund Kaye, of Woodsome, Esq., by whom he had issue Nicholas Kaye, of Woodsome, Esq., who dying S.P., the estate ascended to his uncle George, an ancester of the late Sir John Kaye, bart. But Thomas Burton had a son John, who had Robert, who had an only daughter, Joan. Robert dying in the 19 Henry VII., [1504,] the jurors found, cita starpā, that he was seized of the Manor of Kirkburton and the Advowson of Chantry of St. Mary, in preste to that church, all which descended to Joan, his only child.

This daughter, in the 18 Henry VII., married Thomas Triggott, of South Kirkby, and had issue, Robert Triggott, son and heir, whose grandson had issue three daughters, co-heiresses. Ε ]

The following pedigree more fully explains the descent.

PEDIGREE OF TRIGGOTT, OF SOUTH KIRKBY AND OF BURTON. Ζ ]

Arms : Argent, a chevron between three cross crosslets fitehee, sable. Crest: a lion’s head or, devouring a child proper.

John Moseley, an alderman of York, married Elizabeth, daughter, and one of the co-heiresses of the last Thomas Triggott, to whom, in a partition of the estate, the Manor of Burton was allotted  they had issue, Margaret and Ann, also co-heiresses. The former married Sir John Kaye, of Woodsome, the first Baronet, by whom he acquired the manor and estates of Burton. He died in 1662, and was succeeded by his eldest son Sir John Kaye, the second Baronet, aged 24 in 1665. He married Anne, daughter of William Lister, of Thornton, in Craven, in the county of York, Esq., and sister and sole heir of Christopher Lister, of the same place, Esq., by whom he had issue — 1st, Sir Arthur Kaye, his successor  2nd, George Kaye, of Grange, sometimes called Denby-Grange, in the parish of Kirkheaton, Esq., and other children. Sir John Kaye was many years M.P. for the county of York. He died in 1706.

To his son, George Kaye, of Grange, Esq., among other estates, he gave the Manor of Burton. The said George Kaye married Dorothy, daughter of Robert Savile, of Bryam-Royd, near Elland, Esq., and had issue, John Kaye. He died

1707. His widow afterwards married — Walmersley, of Dalton, Gentleman. She died in 1726. John Kaye, of Grange, Esq., succeeded his father in his estates, and on the death of Sir Arthur Kaye, his uncle, the 3rd Baronet, without male issue the Baronetcy devolved upon him. On the death, also, of his uncle, Thomas Lister, Esq., without issue, who constituted him his heir, he took the name of Lister in addition to that of Kaye, and became Sir John Lister Kaye, of Grange, 4th Baronet. He married Ellen, only daughter of John Wilkinson, of Greenhead, in the parish of Huddersfield, Esq., who died January 29th, 1729, by whom he had issue John Lister Kaye, his successor. To his second wife he married Dorothy, eldest daughter of Richard Richardson, of Bierley, near Bradford, Esq., by whom he had issue  1st, Lister, died an infant  2nd, Richard, of whom we mention hereafter  3rd, Christopher, died an infant  4th, Dorothy, wife of Robert Chaloner, of Bishop Auckland, county of Durham, Esq.  5th, Catherine, died young  6th, Miles, died an infant  and 7th, Margaret.

Sir John Lister Kaye, was sometime M.P. for the city of York. He died April 5th, 1752, aged 55 years, and was succeeded by his eldest son Sir John Lister Kaye, the 5th Baronet, who was bom July 7th, 1725. He served the office of High Sheriff of the county of York in 1761, and died November 27th, 1789, without issue. He was succeeded in the Baronetcy by his half-brother, the Rev. Richard Kaye, LL.D., Dean of Lincoln, prebend of Southwell, &c., the 6th Baronet, who died without issue 25th December, 1809, when the Baronetcy created in 1641, became extinct.

Sir John Kaye, the 5th Baronet, dying without issue, devised the Manor of Burton and the rest of his estates to John Lister Kaye, Esq., of Grange, who married October 18th, 1800, Lady Amelia Grey, 6th daughter of George Henry Grey, Earl of Stamford and Warrington, by whom he had issue. In 1812 he was advanced to the dignity of a Baronetcy.

Sir John Lister Lister Kaye, about the year 1827, sold the Burton estate in small lots. The manor and a small portion of the estate were purchased by the late Mr. Tedbar Tinker, of Shelley, and Mr. Nathaniel Sykes, in whose heirs it now vests.

Burton Hall.

The ancient seat of the lords of Burton — until the family of that name finally merged into that of Triggott, who had their residence at South Kirkby — was situated in the hamlet of Highburton, on the verge of the hill to the west, and on the north-east side of the Burton valley. The ascent is steep, and the situation high and exposed, but commanding a fine view of the valley beneath, in which Storthes Hall, with its richly wooded grounds, forms a striking and prominent object. The designation of Zāle, has almost ceased to be applied to the humble edifice which now occupies this site.

There appears to have been attached to the Hall, a small domestic chapel of pointed gothic architecture, the greatest part of which was taken down about twenty-five years ago. It is difficult to conjecture the cause of its erection so near to the parish church. It must have existed before the Reformation, as it is apparent that the owners of the estate did not reside here after that period.

Burton Cross.

In the small hamlet of Highburton stands an ancient cross, the precise object of which has not perhaps been clearly understood by the inhabitants, but the preservation of this ancient relic from the wasting hand of time, appears to have been always an object of their special care.

It is certain that Burton was, in the time of the Plantagenets, a Market Town  it seems probable that it had been so from a still more remote period, but whether it originated by charter, or by prescription, is unknown. From the fact of the cross being placed in Highburton, there can be little doubt that the markets were held there.

In the Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, in the 26 and 27, Edward III., [1352,] 24th January, under “Holne,” it is stated that the tolls of Burton market were let for 26s. 8d.

Not the least curious circumstance connected with this market, is, that the tolls would seem to have belonged to the Chief Lord of the Fee, and not to the mesne lords — the de Burtons.

Here resided about two centuries ago, a family named Roebuck, who were usually described as of Highburton Cross. They continued to reside here through several generations. The last of the name was Thomas Roebuck, who left an only child — a daughter, who married to ___ Wood, of Monk Bretton, near Barnsley, whose grandson was Sir George Wood, knight, one of the barons of the exchequer, who died in 1823, at an advanced age.

Yew Tree.

This ancient homestead was, for upwards of three hundred years, the property and residence of a family named Mokeson, of the class usually styled “Yeomen. ” John Mokeson, the last possessor, sold the estate to B. Haigh Allen, of Greenhead, Esq., in whose heirs it still remains. There is a singular record of this family, viz. — that the said John Mokeson, and Olive, his wife, daughter of Joshua Senior, of Shelley, had thirty children, of whom, however, only four arrived at the adult age.

Railijs.

Riley is now a small hamlet, on the road from Burton to Thunder-Bridge. There is nothing to recommend it to notice except that at a remote period, its owner, who resided here, received his surname from it. The name appears among the witnesses to ancient charters, viz. — a “John de Rylay,” appears in a charter without date and a “John de Rylay ” appears also as a witness to a charter dated 16, Edward I., [1298,] probably the same person. A “William de Rylay,” occurs in another dated 1319.

Independent Chapel, Dogley-Lane.

This chapel was built in 1816, but has since been considerably enlarged, and galleries erected. It is warmed by an efficient apparatus. An organ was added in 1853.

In connexion with the chapel are school-rooms, built in 1832. The chapel, schools, and parsonage, have recently been fitted-up with gas, &c., at the cost of £100, which sum was liquidated by congregational collections.

The church was formed December 25th, 1816, and as no minister had then settled, the Rev. John Cockin, of Holmfirth, at the request of the friends, presided at the meeting.

The first minister, — the Rev. William Lees, commenced his labours January 2nd, 1820, and remained until his death. His remains are interred within the chapel, and a tablet erected to his memory.

The second minister,—the Rev. George Ryan, commenced his labours March 11th, 1832, and resigned the pastorate March 10th, 1837.

The third minister, — the Rev. William Baines, entered on his office May 3rd, 1840, and died November 28th, 1840, only a pastorate of a few months.

The fourth pastor, — the Rev. John Hughes, commenced his labours here January 1st, 1842, and died February 14th, 1849, and was interred inside the chapel.

The fifth pastor, — the Rev. William Inman, commenced first Sabbath in November, 1850, and resigned the charge September 2nd, 1858. He was succeeded by the Key. Joseph Oddy, the present minister, to whom I am indebted for the information here given.

There is no endowment or grant to the chapel, and the minister is wholly supported by the congregation.

The chapel has been duly licensed for marriages.

Registers of baptisms from 1816.

Monumental Inscriptions.

In the chapel are marble tablets which record as follows:

To the Memory of the Rev. William Lees, who discharged the pastoral duties of this church nearly twelve years, with seriousness, fidelity, and zeal  and who, in the vigour of his age, and of his usefulness, was suddenly called to enter into the joy of his Lord. He died August 13th, 1831, in the 46th year of his age, greatly lamented, as he had been beloved by his own people, and by all who knew him, for his Christian spirit, and consistent deportment. Sacred to the memory of Paul, the son of Joah and Rachel Sugden, of Woodsome Lees, who departed this life February 18th, 1821, aged 18 years. Also, of the above Joah Sugden, who died August 9th, 1845, aged 63 years. He was a faithful office bearer in the church of Christ for 38 years one of the chief promoters of the building of this chapel, and continued its firm friend unto death. Also, of the above Rachel Sugden, who died December 24th, 1850, aged 72 years. Sacred to the Memory of Ann, the wife of Joseph Turner, Woolstapler, of Huddersfield, and daughter of Joah and Rachel Sugden, of Woodsome Lees. She died June 10th, 1832, aged 24 years. In Memory of the Rev. John Hughes, who died February 14th, 1849, in the 39th year of his age, and the 8th year of his ministry. His remains lie interred beneath this chapel. As a minister and pastor, he was earnest, affectionate, and faithful. This monument is erected by the church and congregation as a testimony of their high regard and mournful remembrance.

In the grave-yard is a very handsome monument, with broken column and wreath — on one slab:

In affectionate remembrance of Wright Rhodes, of Spring-Field, who died March 8th, 1859, aged 65 years.

In Memory of John, eldest son of Wright and Sarah Rhodes, who died November 5th, 1846, aged 21 years. Also, of Franklin, their fifth son, who died October 4th, 1852, aged 15 years.

Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Kirkburton.

In 1816, the Wesleyan Methodists of this district erected a chapel at Burton, which at length becoming too small a new site was chosen, and a neat and commodious chapel was erected in 1845, which was opened for religious worship in 1846, when their former chapel was sold. Spacious schoolrooms were erected in 1848, to accommodate 300 scholars. The entire cost of the chapel and school premises amounted to £1650, exclusive of an excellent-toned organ, given by Mrs. Cocker, of Highburton, in 1859.

Primitive Methodist Chapel.

This chapel is situate in Highburton, and was built in 1832, at a cost of about £100, and is calculated to hold about 100 persons.

Kirkburton School.

This school was established in the year 1714, as appears from the following inscription, on an old stone tablet, removed from the front of the original schoolroom and retained in the present schoolroom.

This school, built A. D. 1714, at the charge of the inhabitants it was first endowed with £100, being the free gift of Mr. Henry Robinson, of Leeds, clerk with £20 given by Mr. John Horsfall, of Storz Hall, gentleman and was afterwards endowed by the said Mr. Horsfall’s noble legacy in his last will, with £400 all which sums are to purchase lands and tenements, for the better maintenance of the schoolmaster, and for poor children learning in Thurstonland and Kirkburton. Da dum tempus habes, Tibi propria sit manus
Hoeres auferet hoc nemo, quod dabis ipse Deo.

The above benefactions and legacy were laid out in the purchase of real estates, with the exception of the sum of £42 2s. 6d., which was placed on mortgage of the tolls of the Huddersfield and Penistone turnpike road, but was recalled about 15 years ago, to help to liquidate the expenses incurred in building a large and commodious schoolroom, the original schoolroom being very small and inconvenient, and very much dilapidated, and thus unfit for the purposes of education.

The trustees for the time being are the Vicar of Kirkburton, and the heirs of Richard Horsfall, Esq., and the heirs of Robert Rockley, Esq. The Vicar of Kirkburton, the Rector of Kirkheaton, and the Rector of Elmley, are the electors of the schoolmaster.

The real estates which were purchased consist of — a farm house, outbuildings, and about 20 acres of land, at Holme, in the parish of Almonbury, and let to John Hadfield, for £26 a year — a house and about six acres of land, in the township of Cartworth, let to Benjamin Green for £10 10s. a year—a house in Wakefield, usually called the Old Corn Exchange, let in offices, and which produces about £30 a year net — and a small portion of land, situate in Kirkburton, and let as a garden to George Jenkinson for £1 a year.

These, together with the schoolmaster’s house and premises, comprise the property of the school.

The master of the school occupies the school premises, and receives the emoluments derived from the property after deducting the necessary expenses for keeping the several buildings and estates in proper repair. He teaches twenty poor children of Kirkburton, and ten of Thurstonland, gratis, by agreement with the trustees. Twenty of these free scholars are provided with 2¾ yards of linen for clothing, on St. Thomas’ Day, in every year.

Benefactions.

Mrs. Farmer’s legacy has been laid out by the vicar in the purchase of government consolidated three per cent, annuities.

Mr. James Booth, of Lockwood, formerly of Lane-head, in Burton, by his will dated the 8th day of October, 1852, bequeathed “the sum of two hundred and fifty pounds, the remainder of the said trust money, to apply and appropriate the same to and for the poor of the township of Kirkburton, in the said county of York. And I direct that the said sum of two hundred and fifty pounds, shall be and remain invested in the names of the vicar, churchwardens, and overseers, for the time being, of the parish of Kirkburton aforesaid, in government, or other good security  and that the dividends, interest, or annual proceeds thereof, shall be for ever hereafter paid and applied by the vicar, churchwardens, and overseers, for the time being, of the said parish, at their discretion, for the maintenance, relief, or comfort, of the poor people of the said township of Kirkburton.”

The above sum is invested in the Huddersfield Water Works, and pays interest at three-and-a-half per cent.

The enclosure of the Common Lands of this township took place in 1816, comprising 187 acres.


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